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Thread: Wuhan Virus

  1. #1

    Default Wuhan Virus

    Should President Trump ban all Chinese from planes in the US to protect us from the Wuhan virus? Other countries are banning travelers from China. Would you sit by a Chinese on a flight?
    There is a hot wind blowing.
    Plague drifts across the oceans.
    And if this is the work of an angry god
    I want to look into his angry face.
    There is no pure land now. No safe place.
    Come with us into the mountains.
    Hombres. Sailors. Comrades.

  2. #2

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by ClydeR View Post
    Should President Trump ban all Chinese from planes in the US to protect us from the Wuhan virus? Other countries are banning travelers from China. Would you sit by a Chinese on a flight?
    互联网
    维基百科,自由的百科全书
    跳到导航跳到搜索
    Confusion grey.svg 提示:本条目的主题不是全球資訊網。
    Accuracy dispute
    此條目內容自相矛盾。
    請在讨论页討論問題所在及加以改善。

    此條目可能包含原创研究或未查证内容。 (2012年11月12日)
    请协助添加参考资料以改善这篇条目。详细情况请参见讨论页。
    互联网
    Visualization of Internet routing paths
    2005年Opte项目互联网一部分的路由路径可视化
    概况显示▼
    治理显示▼
    协议显示▼
    服务显示▼
    指南显示▼
    Crystal Clear app linneighborhood.svg 互联网主题
    查论编
    電腦網路類型
    (顺序按覆盖范围)
    纳米网络
    近場通訊(NFC)
    藍牙
    體域網
    個人區域網絡(PAN)
    无线个人网
    局域网(LAN)
    有线局域网
    以太網路
    令牌环
    光纤分布式数据接口
    无线局域网(WLAN)
    Wi-Fi
    ZigBee
    Thread
    MMDS
    SMDS
    虚拟局域网(VLAN)
    家庭区域网络
    存储区域网络(SAN)
    园区网络(CAN)
    骨干网
    城域网(MAN)
    广域网(WAN)
    异步传输模式
    帧中继
    同步数字体系(SDH)
    企业专用网络
    虛擬私人網路(VPN)
    雲端(IAN)
    互联网
    星际互联网(IPN)
    查论编
    「Internet」的各地常用譯名
    中国大陸 互联网、因特网、英特网
    臺灣 網際網路
    港澳 互聯網
    馬新 互联网、网际网络
    互聯網(英語:Internet)是指20世紀末期興起電腦網路與電腦網路之間所串連成的龐大網路系統。這 些網路以一些標準的網路协议相連。它是由從地方到全球範圍內幾百萬個私人、學術界、企業和政府的網路所構成 ,透過電子,無線和光纖網絡技術等等一系列廣泛的技術聯繫在一起。互聯網承載範圍廣泛的信息資源和服務,例 如相互關聯的超文本文件,还有萬維網(WWW)的應用,電子郵件,通話,以及文件共享服務。

    網際網路的起源可以追溯到1960年代美國聯邦政府委託進行的一項研究,目的是建立容錯與電腦 網路的通信[1]。網際網路的前身ARPANET最初在1980年代作為區域學術和軍事網路連接的骨幹。1980年代,NS FNET成為新的骨幹而得到資助,以及其他商業化擴展得到了私人資助,導致了全世界网络技術的發展,以及許 多網路的合併[2]。到1990年代初,商業網路和企業之間的連接標誌著向現代網際網路的過渡[3]。儘管網際網路在1980年代被學術界廣泛使用,但商業化的服務和技術融入了現代每個人的生活 。


    目录
    1 词汇区别
    2 历史
    3 連接技術
    4 架構
    5 服務
    5.1 全球資訊網
    5.2 通訊
    5.3 檔案傳輸
    6 互联网安全
    6.1 惡意軟體
    6.2 監控
    6.3 网络内容审查
    7 普及率
    8 参考文献
    8.1 引用
    8.2 来源
    9 外部链接
    10 参见
    词汇区别
    互联网並不等同万维网,互联网是指凡是能彼此通信的设备组成的网络就叫互联网,指利用TCP/IP通讯协定所建立的各种网络,是国际上最大的互联网,也称“国际互联网”。万维网是一个由许多互相链接的 超文本组成的系统,通过互联网访问。在此定义下,万维网是互联网的一项服务。不过多数民众并不区分两者,常 常混用。

    历史
    主条目:互联网的历史
    在20世紀50年代,通信研究者认识到需要允许在不同计算机用户和通信网络之间进行常规的通信。这促使了分 散网络、排队论和封包交換的研究。1960年,美国国防部高等研究计划署(ARPA)出于冷战考虑建立的A RPANET引发了技术进步并使其成为互联网发展的中心。ARPANET的發展始於兩個網路節點,由倫納德 ·克萊因羅克帶領的加利福尼亞大學洛杉磯分校的網路測量中心與加利福尼亞州門羅帕克斯坦福國際研究院(SR I)道格拉斯·恩格爾巴特的NLS系統兩個節點之間連接。第三個節點是加利福尼亞大學聖塔芭芭拉分校,第四 個節點是犹他大学。到1971年底,已經有15個節點連接到ARPANET[4][5]。1973年6月,挪威地震陣列所(NORSAR)連接到ARPANET成為美國本土之外的第 一個網路節點[6][7][8]。

    1974年,罗伯特·卡恩和文頓·瑟夫提出TCP/IP,定义了在电脑网络之间传送报文的方法(他們在2004年也因此獲得图灵奖[9][10])。1986年,美国国家科学基金会建立了超級電腦中心與學術機構之间互联基於TCP/IP技術的骨干网络NSFNET,速度由最初的56kbit/s,接著為T1(1.5Mbit/s),最後發展至T3(45Mbit/s)[11]。商業互聯網服務提供商(ISP)出現於1980年代末和1990年代初。ARPANET於1990年退役 。


    NSFNET T3骨幹網,1992年
    互聯網於1980年代中後期在歐洲和澳洲迅速擴張[12][13],並於1980年代後期和1990年代初期擴展至亞洲[14]。1989年中,MCI Mail和CompuServe與網際網路建立了連接,並且向50萬大眾提供了電子郵件服務[15]。1990年3月,康奈爾大學和歐洲核子研究中心(CERN)之間架設了NSFNET和歐洲之間的第一條高 速T1(1.5Mbit/s)連接[16]。六個月後,蒂姆·伯纳斯-李編寫了第一個網頁瀏覽器[17]。到1990年聖誕節,蒂姆·伯纳斯-李建立了運行万维网所需的所有工具:超文本傳輸協定(HTTP)[18]、超文本標記語言(HTML)、第一個網頁瀏覽器、第一個網頁伺服器[19]和第一個網站[20]。到1995年,NSFNET退役時,互聯網在美國已完全商業化,從而解除了最後的商業流量限 制[21]。

    網際網路的成功,可從“Internet”这个术语的大、小寫分化窺知一二。最初,互联网一詞代表那些使用 IP協定架設而成的網路,而今天,它已引申泛指各種類型的網路,不再侷限於IP網路。於是以小寫的互联网( internet,開頭的「i」是小寫字母)為任何分離的實體網路之集合,這些網路以一組通用的協定相連, 形成邏輯上的單一網路。而大寫的互联网(Internet,開頭的「I」是大寫字母)專指前身為ARPAN ET,後使用IP協定將各種實體網路連結成此單一邏輯網路。大寫的互聯網是小寫互聯網的其中一種形式,反過 來卻不然。[22]2002年起,有学者开始提议将“internet”一词用小写表示,理由是互联网已经成为人类生活的一部 分,失去了专有的意义[23];2016年,美联社认为“互联网”已和“电话”一样成为一件一般的事物,不具有专属商标的意义,于是开始 在其格式手册中规定“internet”和“web”一词全部小写,纽约时报也随后跟进,[24][25]但同时亦有媒体提出不同意见[26]。

    連接技術

    21世紀家用光纖數據機
    任何需要使用網際網路的计算机必须通过某种方式与網際網路进行连接。網際網路接入技术的发展非常迅速,带宽 由最初的14.4Kbps发展到目前的100Mbps甚至1Gbps带宽,接入方式也由过去单一的电话拨号 方式,发展成现在多样的有线和无线接入方式,接入终端也開始朝向移动设备发展。并且更新更快的接入方式仍在 继续地被研究和开发。

    架構
    網際網路协议套組
    應用層
    BGPDHCPDNSFTPHTTPHTTPSIMAPLDAPMGCPMQTTNNTPNTPPOPON C/RPCRTPRTSPRIPSIPSMTPSNMPSSHTelnetXMPP更多...
    傳輸層
    TCPUDPTLS/SSLDCCPSCTPRSVP更多...
    網路層
    IP IPv4IPv6ICMPICMPv6ECNIGMPOSPFIPsec更多...
    連結層
    ARPNDPTunnels L2TPPPPMAC EthernetDSLISDNFDDI更多...
    查论编
    最底层的是網際網路協定,是用于报文交换网络的一种面向数据的协议,这一协议定义了数据包在网际传送时的格 式。目前使用最多的是IPv4版本,这一版本中用32位定义IP地址,尽管地址总数达到43亿,但是仍然不 能满足现今全球网络飞速发展的需求,因此IPv6版本应运而生。在IPv6版本中,IP地址共有128位, “几乎可以为地球上每一粒沙子分配一个IPv6地址”。IPv6目前并没有普及,许多網際網路服务提供商并 不支持IPv6协议的连接。但是,可以预见,将来在IPv6的帮助下,任何家用电器都有可能连 入網際網路。

    中间层是UDP协议和TCP协议,它们用于控制数据流的传输。UDP是一种不可靠的数据流传输协议,仅为网 络层和应用层之间提供简单的接口。而TCP协议则具有高的可靠性,通过为数据报加入额外信息,并提供重发机 制,它能够保证数据不丢包、没有冗余包以及保证数据包的顺序。对于一些需要高可靠性的应用,可以选择TCP 协议;而相反,对于性能优先考虑的应用如流媒体等,则可以选择UDP协议。

    最顶层的是一些应用层协议,这些协议定义了一些用于通用应用的数据报结构,包括FTP及HTT P等。

    服務
    網際網路承載著眾多應用程序和服務,包括全球資訊網、社群媒體、電子郵件、行動應用程式、多人電子遊戲、網 際網路通話、檔案分享和串流媒體服務等。提供這些服務的大多數伺服器託管於資料中心,並且透過高效能的內容 傳遞網路存取。

    全球資訊網

    CERN的提姆·柏內茲-李使用的NeXT工作站成了世界上第一台網頁伺服器,並運行了世界上第一個網頁瀏覽器
    全球資訊網是文件、圖片、多媒體和其他資源的全球集合,在邏輯上透過超連結互相連接,並使用統一資源標誌符 標識,統一資源標誌符提供了一個全球命名標識系統,象徵性地標識服務、網頁伺服器、資料庫以及提供的文件和 資源。超文本傳輸協議(HTTP)是全球資訊網的主要存取協議,全球資訊網的服務使用HTTP在軟體系統之 間進行通訊和資料傳輸[27]。

    全球資訊網瀏覽器軟體,例如︰微軟的Internet Explorer╱Edge、Mozilla Firefox、Opera、蘋果公司的Safari和Google Chrome,能讓使用者透過嵌入文件的超連結在網頁與另一網頁之間導覽,這些文件包括圖形、音效、文字、 影片、多媒體和互動式內容。除了瀏覽器軟體之外,全球資訊網的客戶端軟體還可以包括動畫,遊戲,辦公應用程 序和科學展示。客戶端軟體透過使用如Yahoo、Bing和Google等搜尋引擎進行關鍵字搜尋資料,相 較於印刷媒體、書籍、百科全書和傳統圖書館,更容易和即時存取大量多樣的資訊,全球資訊網對於網際網路的普 及發揮了重要的作用[28]。

    通訊
    電子郵件是網際網路上重要的通訊服務。這項類似於郵寄信件或備忘錄的方式發送電子文字訊息的概念已早於網際 網路的誕生之前[29][30]。圖片、文件和其他資料以電子郵件附件的形式發送。電子郵件可以發送多個電子郵件地址。

    檔案傳輸
    檔案分享是網際網路傳輸大量數據的一個例子,透過上傳至網站或檔案傳輸協定(FTP)伺服器上以供他人下載 。除此之外,也可以置於共享位置或檔案伺服器供其他人使用。

    互联网安全
    经过多年的发展,互联网已经在社会的各个层面为全人类提供了便利。但是随之而来的不全是正面的影响,並影響 著人们的正常生活。

    惡意軟體
    惡意軟體是透過互聯網使用和散發的軟件,包括在人為協助下複製的電腦病毒,自我複製的電腦蠕蟲,阻斷服務攻 擊軟體,勒索軟件,殭屍網絡以及蒐集使用者活動和鍵入資訊的間諜軟件,通常這些行為足以構成網 路犯罪。

    監控
    参见:大规模监控和稜鏡计划
    在美國,由美國國家安全局(NSA)為首自2007年起開始實施的最高機密等級電子監聽計劃,該計劃可監聽 美國本土以外的使用者、或任何與國外通訊的美國公民。參與此計划的前中情局(CIA)雇员斯诺登在2013 年5月將檔案複製後前往香港並將此計划公諸於世,然后於2013年6月6日,在英国《衛報》和美国《華盛頓 郵報》公開[31]。

    网络内容审查

    互联网审查和监视世界地图
    普遍存在网络审查
    有基本的网络审查
    有部分网络审查
    多变的情况
    少或没有网络审查
    极少数据或无数据
    主条目:网络内容审查
    参见:中国网络审查和防火长城
    网络内容审查是一种对网络承载的内容进行审查,并对部分内容进行过滤、删除、关闭等行为,内容审查通常伴随 对相关人员与组织的行政处理。网络审查主要针对危害国家安全、侵犯版权与个人隐私、通过网络进行违法活动以 及对不道德的行为进行宣传和教唆等行为。许多国家都有相关立法,并且在政府设有相关部门进行监控和管理。然 而对网络内容的审查在一定程度上限制了言论的自由,在何种程度上、采取何种手段进行网络审查一直是争议的话 题。

    在某些国家,如中华人民共和国、沙特阿拉伯政府认为部分敏感信息(政治、宗教等)不能散布到国内民众中,所 以这些国家政府利用信息技术过滤、封锁了一些包含敏感信息的国内、国外网站,以防止民众访问到 这些网站[32]。个别国家,如朝鲜,则完全禁止普通民众访问境外网站,民众只能访问由政府开设的國家區域網路[33]。

    普及率

    東亞及中國各地區歷年來的網路擴散 1995-2012
    截至2019年3月,全球約有43億網民,互聯網普及率是56%。 [34] [35]

    截至2011年,互联网普及率最高的國家或城市為冰島(97.8%);第二至第五位分別是挪威(97.2% )、瑞典(92.9%),福克兰群岛(92.4%)及盧森堡(91.4%)。[36]

    2006年時,經濟合作發展組織调查显示截至2005年底,宽带上網(Broadband)普及率的前五名 分別為冰島(26.7%)、韩国(25.4%)、荷蘭(25.3%)、丹麥(25.0%),以及瑞士(23 .1%)。而美國在所有工業化國家中排名第12。

    根据中国互联网络信息中心在2019年2月发表的《第43次中国互联网络发展状况统计报告》,截至2018 年12月,中国的网民数量达8.29亿人,为世界首位,互联网普及率达到59.6%,高于世界平均水平,但 仍远落后于互联网发达国家。[37]

    参考文献
    引用
    "IPTO – Information Processing Techniques Office", The Living Internet, Bill Stewart (ed), January 2000.
    "Internet History – One Page Summary", The Living Internet, Bill Stewart (ed), January 2000.
    "So, who really did invent the Internet?" 互联网档案馆的存檔,存档日期3 September 2011., Ian Peter, The Internet History Project, 2004. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
    Hafner, Katie. Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet. Simon & Schuster. 1998. ISBN 978-0-684-83267-8.
    Hauben, Ronda. From the ARPANET to the Internet. 2001 [28 May 2009]. (原始内容存档于21 July 2009). 已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
    NORSAR and the Internet. NORSAR. (原始内容存档于21 January 2013). 已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
    "#3 1982: the ARPANET community grows" in 40 maps that explain the internet 互联网档案馆的存檔,存档日期6 March 2017., Timothy B. Lee, Vox Conversations, 2 June 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
    Kirstein, Peter T. Early experiences with the ARPANET and Internet in the UK. Department of Computer Science, Systems and Networks Research Group, University College London. [13 April 2016]; Cade Metz. How the Queen of England Beat Everyone to the Internet. Wired Magazine. 25 December 2012 [27 June 2014]. (原始内容存档于19 July 2014). 已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
    Vinton (“Vint”) Gray Cerf. ACM. 2005-02-16 [2013-12-07].
    Robert (“Bob”) Elliot Kahn. ACM. 2005-02-16 [2013-12-07].
    NSFNET: A Partnership for High-Speed Networking, Final Report 1987–1995, Karen D. Frazer, Merit Network, Inc., 1995
    Ben Segal. A Short History of Internet Protocols at CERN. 1995.
    Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE)
    Internet History in Asia. 16th APAN Meetings/Advanced Network Conference in Busan. [25 December 2005]. (原始内容存档于1 February 2006). 已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
    Inc, InfoWorld Media Group. InfoWorld. InfoWorld Media Group, Inc. 25 September 1989. (原始内容存档于29 January 2017) –通过Google Books. 已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
    Ftp.cuhk.edu.hk
    Berners-Lee, Tim. The WorldWideWeb browser. World Wide Web Consortium. [2010-07-23].
    Berners-Lee, Tim. The Original HTTP as defined in 1991. W3C.org. (原始内容存档于5 June 1997). 已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助); 已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
    The website of the world's first-ever web server. info.cern.ch. (原始内容存档于5 January 2010). 已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
    Tim Berners-Lee. Confirming The Exact Location Where the Web Was Invented.
    Harris, Susan R.; Gerich, Elise. Retiring the NSFNET Backbone Service: Chronicling the End of an Era. ConneXions. April 1996, 10 (4). (原始内容存档于17 August 2013). 已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
    L Parziale. TCP/IP tutorial and technical overview (IBM Redbooks). 2006: pg3, 13. 缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
    Who Owns the Internet? You and i Do. New York Times. 2002-12-29 [2016-07-19].
    The Associated Press style guide will no longer capitalize 'internet'. The Verge. 2016-04-02 [2016-07-19].
    Bulletin! The 'Internet' Is About to Get Smaller. New York Times. 2016-05-24 [2016-07-19].
    The AP Stylebook Will No Longer Capitalize Internet. What a Shame.. Slate. 2016-04-03 [2016-07-19].
    The Difference Between the Internet and the World Wide Web. Webopedia.com. QuinStreet Inc. 2010-06-24 [2014-05-01]. (原始内容存档于2 May 2014). 已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
    Internet legal definition of Internet. West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Free Online Law Dictionary. 2009-07-15 [2008-11-25].
    Ron Brown, Fax invades the mail market, New Scientist 互联网档案馆的存檔,存档日期2016-05-09., Vol. 56, No. 817 (Oct., 26, 1972), pp. 218–21.
    Herbert P. Luckett, What's News: Electronic-mail delivery gets started, Popular Science 互联网档案馆的存檔,存档日期2016-04-30., Vol. 202, No. 3 (March 1973); page 85
    Greenwald, Glenn; Ewen MacAskill. Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind revelations of NSA surveillance. The Guardian (Hong Kong: Guardian Media Group). 9 June 2013 [9 June 2013].
    Behind China's internet Red Firewall
    2013年07月1日16:11 来源:搜狐网 作者:孙兴杰. 孙兴杰:朝鲜平板电脑 不能上网可看金日成电影. Star.news.sohu.com. 2013-01-02 [2013-12-07].
    Internet Growth Stats 1995-2019. Internetworldstats.com. [2019-04-25].
    Internet Wotld Stats. Internetworldstats.com. [2019-04-25].
    TOP 50 COUNTRIES WITH THE HIGHEST INTERNET PENETRATION RATE. Internetworldstats.com. [2013-12-07].
    中国互联网络发展状况统计报告 (PDF). 2019-02 [2019-04-25].
    来源
    书籍
    网络化生存,乔岗,中国城市出版社,1997年,ISBN 978-7-5074-0930-7
    Richard J. Smith, Mark Gibbs, Paul McFedries 著,毛伟、张文涛 译,Internet漫游指南,人民邮电出版社,1998年. ISBN 978-7-115-06663-3
    世界是平的,湯馬斯·佛里曼 著,2005年出版. ISBN 978-986-80180-9-9
    外部链接
    维基共享资源中相关的多媒体资源:互联网
    (英文) The Internet Society
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    (英文) RFC 2235 - Hobbes' Internet Timeline
    (中文) W3C China中国万维网联盟
    (中文) 財團法人台灣網路資訊中心
    (中文) 中国互联网络信息中心
    (中文) 互聯網在香港網絡大典上的條目(繁體中文)
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    Coronavirus de Wuhan
    2019-nCoV


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    Cet article concerne un événement récent ou en cours.
    Ces informations peuvent manquer de recul, ne pas prendre en compte des développements récents ou changer à mesure que l’événement progresse. Le titre lui-même peut être provisoire. N’hésitez pas à l’améliorer en veillant à citer vos sources.
    La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 28 janvier 2020 à 15:50.
    2019-nCoV

    Virions d'un Betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV, vus par microscopie électronique à balayage
    Classification
    Type
    Virus
    Domaine
    Riboviria
    Embranchement
    Negarnaviricota
    Ordre
    Nidovirales
    Sous-ordre
    Cornidovirineae
    Famille
    Coronaviridae
    Sous-famille
    Orthocoronaviridae
    Genre
    Betacoronavirus
    Sous-genre
    Sarbecovirus
    Espèce
    2019-nCoV a
    OMS1, CDC2
    Le coronavirus de Wuhan (chinois simplifié : 武汉冠状病毒 ; chinois traditionnel : 武漢冠狀病毒), désigné internationalement sous le terme novel Coronavirus abrégé 2019-nCoV3,4, parfois appelé virus de la pneumonie du marché aux fruits de mer de Wuhan5, est le coronavirus à l'origine de l’épidémie de pneumonie de Wuhan. Il a été signalé pour la première fois dans la ville de Wuhan (province de Hubei), d'où son nom. Apparenté au coronavirus du SRAS, il appartient au sous-genre des Sarbecovirus6.
    Son génome, constitué d'un ARN simple-brin de 29903 nucléotides, a été séquencé pour la première fois le 5 janvier 2020 par une équipe de l'université Fudan de Shanghai (Chine)7,8,9.
    L'archive de prépublications bioRxiv, ainsi que divers forums de chercheurs, permettent une diffusion rapide — mais non formellement validée par les pairs — de l'information scientifique concernant 2019-nCoV10. Les premiers articles scientifiques validés par les pairs sont publiés le 24 janvier 202011,12.
    Depuis le 21 janvier 2020, l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé tient à jour un bilan quotidien de la situation au niveau mondial (en anglais)13, et une « foire aux questions » sur le nouveau virus (en français)14. L'Université Johns Hopkins met à disposition une carte de l'épidémie actualisée en temps réel15.

    Sommaire
    1
    Symptômes chez l'homme
    2
    Taxonomie et Phylogénie; origine du virus
    3
    Épidémiologie; dispersion du virus
    4
    Biologie moléculaire; fonctionnement du virus
    5
    Traitement
    6
    Notes et références
    7
    Voir aussi
    7.1
    Articles connexes
    7.2
    Liens externes
    Symptômes chez l'homme[modifier | modifier le code]
    Les maladies que provoquent les coronavirus peuvent aller du rhume (ils en sont la seconde cause aux États-Unis16) à des maladies plus graves telles que le syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS, épidémie en 2003) et le syndrome respiratoire du Moyen-Orient (MERS, épidémie en 2012). Seuls six coronavirus (229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV) étaient auparavant connus pour infecter des humains ; 2019-nCoV serait donc le septième.
    Une première description scientifiquement éprouvée de la pathologie et de l'épidémiologie de 2019-nCoV a été publiée le 24 janvier 2020 par un consortium de médecins de Wuhan et de Beijing12.
    Les symptômes rapportés qui ressemblent grossièrement à ceux de la grippe saisonnière incluent la fièvre, la fatigue, une toux sèche, un manque de souffle, des difficultés à respirer17, la pneumonie, une insuffisance rénale, et le décès dans les cas sévères18,19. Aux alentours de 3%13, la létalité reste faible en comparaison avec celle du SARS-CoV par exemple.
    La majorité des patients hospitalisés présentent des signes vitaux stables lors de leur admission, ainsi qu'un manque de globules blancs, spécifiquement un manque de lymphocytes17. Toutefois, un quart des patients diagnostiqués avaient des symptômes sévères. Une étude sur les 41 premiers patients hospitalisés avec un diagnostic confirmé du virus à Wuhan a relevé qu'une majorité de ceux-ci étaient en bonne santé avant leur infection, un tiers ayant été concerné par des problèmes de santé préalables. Les trois quarts des patients toussaient, un peu plus de la moitié ressentait une gêne respiratoire, et un tiers avait des difficultés respiratoires sévères nécessitant des soins intensifs20,21. Le 23 janvier 2020, l'OMS déclare que la plupart des patients décédés avaient un système immunitaire affaibli dû à des problèmes de santé tels que l'hypertension, le diabète ou une maladie cardiovasculaire22.
    Taxonomie et Phylogénie; origine du virus[modifier | modifier le code]
    Le virus 2019-nCoV appartient au genre Betacoronavirus, dans la famille Coronaviridae.
    Dix-huit génomes ont été isolés et signalés23, notamment BetaCoV / Wuhan / IVDC-HB-01/2019, BetaCoV / Wuhan / IVDC-HB-04/2020, BetaCoV / Wuhan / IVDC-HB-05/2019, BetaCoV / Wuhan / WIV04 / 2019 et BetaCoV / Wuhan / IPBCAMS-WH-01/2019 du CDC chinois (en), de l'Institut de biologie des agents pathogènes et de l'hôpital Wuhan Jinyintan24,25. Les séquences de 2019-nCoV présentent des similitudes avec les bétacoronavirus trouvés chez les chauves-souris26,27. 2019-nCoV est génétiquement distinct des autres coronavirus humains tels que ceux liés au SRAS28 et au MERS26; toutefois proche du SARS-CoV, il fait partie comme lui du sous-genre Sarbecovirus29,30,31.
    Une analyse phylogénétique et génomique publiée le 22 janvier 2020 excluait quasiment une descendance directe de 2019-nCoV à partir de SARS-CoV28: selon ses auteurs un événement de recombinaison homologue pourrait avoir mélangé un bétacoronavirus de « clade A » (virus de type Bat SARS CoVZC45 et CoVZXC21) avec un bétacoronavirus encore inconnu. Cette étude suggère par ailleurs, en examinant la fréquence d'usage des codons, qu'un serpent de la région de Wuhan serait le « réservoir d'animaux sauvages le plus probable » pour 2019-nCOV (bien qu'aucun coronavirus ne soit connu dans les animaux à sang froid), ce qui a été repris par la presse32; cette dernière interprétation a toutefois été remise en cause le jour même, et l'origine « serpent » écartée33,34. L'hypothèse d'une recombinaison a quant à elle été écartée elle aussi quelques jours plus tard par une équipe grecque35.
    Épidémiologie; dispersion du virus[modifier | modifier le code]
    Le marché en gros de fruits de mer de Wuhan (en), près de la gare de Hankou, a été identifié comme la source initiale de l'épidémie dans la première annonce officielle par les autorités de Wuhan, le 31 décembre 201936. Les premiers symptômes attribuables a posteriori à 2019-nCoV sont toutefois apparus dès le 1er décembre 2019 chez un patient qui n'avait pas fréquenté ce marché12, de même qu'un tiers des 41 cas signalés à Wuhan en décembre 2019. Le marché a été fermé au lendemain de l'alerte, le 1er janvier 2020.
    Dans les premières semaines de l'épidémie de 2019-2020, le virus s'est propagé par l'intermédiaire de voyageurs vers différents pays d'Asie37,38,39, le 21 janvier en Amérique du Nord40 et, le 24 janvier, en Australie41 et en Europe (3 cas confirmés en France sur des patients ayant récemment voyagé en Chine42). Il y a eu 107 décès, principalement dans la province du Hubei, et plus de plus de 4400 cas confirmés15. Les scientifiques du Centre d'analyse des maladies infectieuses mondiales du Medical Research Council de l'Imperial College de Londres estiment que jusqu'à 4 000 personnes sont infectées par 2019-nCoV dans la ville de Wuhan43.
    Le 20 janvier 2020, la transmission interhumaine a été confirmée dans le Guangdong, en Chine, selon Zhong Nanshan, chef de l'équipe de la commission de la santé enquêtant sur l'épidémie44. La première description scientifiquement détaillée d'une transmission interhumaine au sein d'une famille a été publiée par une équipe de médecins de Hong-Kong et de Shenzen le 24 janvier 201911.
    Le taux de reproduction (Ro) préliminaire de 2019-nCoV, c’est-à-dire le nombre moyen de personnes infectées par un patient, a été estimé entre 1,4 et 2,5 par l'OMS le 23 janvier 202045. Il serait comparable à celui de SRAS-CoV et de la grippe de 1918, compris entre 1,4 et 3,846.
    Le temps d'Incubation de 2019-nCoV est estimé entre 2 et 14 jours47, la durée de vie du virus hors organisme est quant à elle estimée entre 3 heures (en milieu sec) et 3 jours (en milieu humide), excluant la possibilité de contamination par colis, qui dans les cas les plus rapides, parcourent la distance Chine–États-Unis en 4 jours48.
    Biologie moléculaire; fonctionnement du virus[modifier | modifier le code]
    Le nouveau génome a conduit à plusieurs expériences de modélisation de protéines sur la protéine de liaison aux récepteurs (RBD) de la protéine nCoV spike (S). Au 23 janvier 2020, deux groupes chinois pensent que la protéine S conserve une affinité suffisante avec le récepteur du SRAS (enzyme de conversion de l'angiotensine 2, ACE2) pour l'utiliser comme mécanisme d'entrée cellulaire49; l'identification de ACE2 comme récepteur cellulaire est également décrite par deux autres groupes de chercheurs26,50.
    Traitement[modifier | modifier le code]
    2019-nCoV est de nature virale. Les antibiotiques et les bactériophagiques sont donc inadaptés : ils ne traitent que les pathologies bactériennes.
    Aucun traitement spécifique n'est actuellement disponible, mais des antiviraux existants pourrait être repositionnés51.
    Les traitements reçus par les patients concernent donc essentiellement les symptômes, afin de favoriser leur guérison spontanée15.
    À plus long terme, plusieurs équipes internationales travaillent à la mise au point ou à l'adaptation d'un vaccin52.
    Notes et références[modifier | modifier le code]
    (en) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l’article de Wikipédia en anglais intitulé « Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) » (voir la liste des auteurs).
    ↑ La notation nCoV fait référence à Novel Coronavirus, qui est la dénomination provisoire standard pour tous les nouveaux coronavirus en attente de classification taxonomique pouvant infliger la mort, établie.
    ↑ (en) « Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) » [archive], sur https://www.who.int/ [archive], OMS (consulté le 25 janvier 2020).
    ↑ (en) « 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Wuhan, China » [archive], sur https://www.cdc.gov/ [archive], CDC (consulté le 25 janvier 2020).
    ↑ « Surveillance case definitions for human infection with novel coronavirus (nCoV) » [archive], who.int (consulté le 21 janvier 2020).
    ↑ « Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Wuhan, China » [archive], cdc.gov, cdc.gov, 10 janvier 2020 (consulté le 16 janvier 2020).
    ↑ (en) « Wuhan seafood market pneumonia virus » [archive], sur NCBI (consulté le 23 janvier 2020).
    ↑ (en) « Phylogeny of SARS-like betacoronaviruses including novel coronavirus from Wuhan using data generated by the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center & School of Public Health, the National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, the Institute of Pathogen Biology, and the Wuhan Institute of Virology shared via GISAID » [archive], sur https://nextstrain.org/ [archive], 16 janvier 2020 (consulté le 25 janvier 2020).
    ↑ « New-type coronavirus causes pneumonia in Wuhan: expert – Xinhua | English.news.cn » [archive] (consulté le 9 janvier 2020).
    ↑ « CoV2020 » [archive], platform.gisaid.org (consulté le 12 janvier 2020).
    ↑ (en) Wu, F. et al., « Wuhan seafood market pneumonia virus isolate Wuhan-Hu-1, complete genome » [archive], sur GenBank, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020).
    ↑ (en) « 2019-nCoV in bioRxiv » [archive], sur bioRxiv (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a et b (en) Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Shuofeng Yuan, Kin-Hang Kok et Kelvin Kai-Wang To, « A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster », The Lancet,‎ janvier 2020, S0140673620301549 (DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a b et c (en) Chaolin Huang, Yeming Wang, Xingwang Li et Lili Ren, « Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China », The Lancet,‎ janvier 2020, S0140673620301835 (DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a et b (en) « Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) situation reports » [archive], sur www.who.int (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Questions fréquentes sur les nouveaux ‎coronavirus » [archive], sur www.who.int (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a b et c (en-US) « Wuhan Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) global cases (by JHU CSSE) » [archive], sur Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Marie E. Killerby, Holly M. Biggs, Amber Haynes et Rebecca M. Dahl, « Human coronavirus circulation in the United States 2014–2017 », Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 101,‎ avril 2018, p. 52–56 (DOI 10.1016/j.jcv.2018.01.019, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a et b (en) Hui DS, I Azhar E, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R,, Dar O, Ippolito G, Mchugh TD, Mchugh TD, Memish ZA et al., « The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health – The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China », International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 91,‎ 14 janvier 2020, p. 264-266 (PMID 31953166, DOI 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 26 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en-CA) « Wuhan Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) » [archive], sur Ontario.ca, 25 janvier 2020 (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Experts explain the latest bulletin of unknown cause of viral pneumonia » [archive du 11 janvier 2020], sur Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, 11 janvier 2020 (consulté le 11 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Coronavirus : ce que l'on sait des premiers patients touchés par l'épidémie » [archive], sur Franceinfo, 25 janvier 2020 (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Chaolin Huang, Yeming Wang, Xingwang Li et Lili Ren, « Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China », The Lancet,‎ janvier 2020, S0140673620301835 (DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Déclaration du Directeur général de l’OMS sur les recommandations ‎du Comité d’urgence du RSI sur le ‎nouveau coronavirus » [archive], sur www.who.int, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ Trevor Bedford and Richard Neher, « Genomic epidemiology of novel coronavirus (nCoV) using data generated by Fudan University, China CDC, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Thai National Institute of Health shared via GISAID » [archive], nextstrain.org (consulté le 22 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Initial genome release of novel coronavirus » [archive], Virological, 11 janvier 2020 (consulté le 12 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Wu, F. et al., « Wuhan seafood market pneumonia virus isolate Wuhan-Hu-1, complete genome » [archive], sur GenBank, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020)

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a b et c (en) Shi, ZL et al., « Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin », bioRxiv,‎ 23 janvier 2020 (lire en ligne [archive])
    ↑ (en) Benvenuto D. et al., « The 2019-new Coronavirus epidemic: evidence for virus evolution », bioRxiv.org,‎ 24 janvier 2020 (lire en ligne [archive])

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a et b Ji, Wang, Zhao et Zai, « Homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein of the newly identified coronavirus may boost cross‐species transmission from snake to human », Journal of Medical Virology,‎ 22 janvier 2020 (DOI 10.1002/jmv.25682)
    ↑ « Phylogeny of SARS-like betacoronaviruses » [archive], nextstrain (consulté le 18 janvier 2020)
    ↑ Hui DS, I Azhar E, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R, Dar O, Ippolito G, Mchugh TD, Memish ZA, Drosten C, Zumla A, Petersen E. The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health – The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Jan 14;91:264–266. PMID 31953166 [archive] DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009
    ↑ Antonio C. P. Wong, Xin Li, Susanna K. P. Lau, Patrick C. Y. Woo: Global Epidemiology of Bat Coronaviruses [archive], in: Viruses. 2019 Feb; 11(2): 174, doi:10.3390/v11020174
    ↑ CNN: Snakes could be the source of the Wuhan coronavirus outbreak [archive]
    ↑ (en-US) Robertson D.L., « nCoV's relationship to bat coronaviruses & recombination signals (no snakes) » [archive], sur Virological, 22 janvier 2020 (consulté le 24 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Callaway E. et Cyranoski D., « Why snakes probably aren’t spreading the new China virus », Nature,‎ 23 janvier 2020 (ISSN 0028-0836 et 1476-4687, DOI 10.1038/d41586-020-00180-8, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Dimitrios Paraskevis, Evangelia Georgia Kostaki, Gkikas Magiorkinis et Georgios Panayiotakopoulos, « Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event », bioRxiv, Microbiology,‎ 27 janvier 2020 (DOI 10.1101/2020.01.26.920249, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 28 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (zh) « Notice d'information de la Commission municipale de la santé de Wuhan sur la situation actuelle de l'épidémie de pneumonie dans notre ville [en chinois] » [archive], sur http://wjw.wuhan.gov.cn/ [archive], 31 décembre 2019 (consulté le 28 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) « China coronavirus: Hong Kong scraps major Lunar New Year events » [archive], sur South China Morning Post, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) hermesauto, « Wuhan virus: Vietnam confirms 2 cases of Sars-like coronavirus » [archive], The Straits Times, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) hermesauto, « Singapore confirms first case of Wuhan virus » [archive], The Straits Times, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « New Virus Spreads to U.S., Sparking Rush to Contain Outbreak » [archive], sur www.bloomberg.com, 21 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Scott Morrison, « Update on Coronavirus pic.twitter.com/Ol8DRQtVQJ » [archive], sur @ScottMorrisonMP, 24 janvier 2020 (consulté le 25 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Coronavirus : un troisième cas d’infection confirmé en France », Le Monde.fr,‎ 24 janvier 2020 (lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 24 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en-GB) « Lockdowns rise as China tries to control virus », BBC News,‎ 23 janvier 2020 (lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Associated Press, « China confirms human-to-human transmission of new coronavirus » [archive], sur CBC.ca, 20 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) « Statement on the meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus 2019 (n-CoV) on 23 January 2020 » [archive], sur www.who.int (consulté le 26 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Julien Riou et Christian L. Althaus, « Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019-nCoV », bioRxiv,‎ 24 janvier 2020, p. 2020.01.23.917351 (DOI 10.1101/2020.01.23.917351, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 25 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en-US) Roni Caryn Rabin, « What Is the Coronavirus? Symptoms, Treatment and Risks », The New York Times,‎ 21 janvier 2020 (ISSN 0362-4331, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « VERIFY: Can you get Coronavirus from packages shipped from China? » [archive], sur wbir.com (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Xu, X. et al., « Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission », SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences,‎ 21 janvier 2020 (lire en ligne [archive])
    ↑ (en) Michael C. Letko et Vincent Munster, « Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for lineage B β-coronaviruses, including 2019-nCoV », bioRxiv,‎ 22 janvier 2020 (DOI 10.1101/2020.01.22.915660, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 23 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) « WHO says new China coronavirus could spread, warns hospitals worldwide », Reuters,‎ 14 janvier 2020 (lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 28 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Coronavirus : « La France travaille à un vaccin » », La Croix,‎ 22 janvier 2020 (ISSN 0242-6056, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 28 janvier 2020)
    Voir aussi[modifier | modifier le code]
    Articles connexes[modifier | modifier le code]
    Épidémie du coronavirus de 2019-2020
    Syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS)
    Syndrome respiratoire du Moyen-Orient (MERS)
    Liens externes[modifier | modifier le code]
    CDC chinois [archive] (Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention)
    Institut de Biologie des Agents pathogènes [archive] (Institute of Pathogen Biology)
    Carte de l'épidémie actualisée en temps réel [archive] par le Center for Systems Science and Engineering de la Johns Hopkins University de Baltimore1
    Questions fréquentes sur les nouveaux ‎coronavirus [archive] et Rapports quotidiens de situation sur le nouveau Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) [en anglais] [archive] par l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé
    Portail de la virologie Portail de la médecine
    ↑ (en-US) Gardner L., « Mapping the Wuhan Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) » [archive], sur systems.jhu.edu, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    Catégories : Événement en coursCoronaviridaeVirus du groupe IV2019 en Chine2020 en Chine[+]


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    Ardwen the submitive: [LNet]-GSIV:Ardwen: "not like I was given a choice to opt out of bro mode, bro"

  6. #6

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by Murrandii View Post
    Coronavirus de Wuhan
    2019-nCoV


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    Cet article concerne un événement récent ou en cours.
    Ces informations peuvent manquer de recul, ne pas prendre en compte des développements récents ou changer à mesure que l’événement progresse. Le titre lui-même peut être provisoire. N’hésitez pas à l’améliorer en veillant à citer vos sources.
    La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 28 janvier 2020 à 15:50.
    2019-nCoV

    Virions d'un Betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV, vus par microscopie électronique à balayage
    Classification
    Type
    Virus
    Domaine
    Riboviria
    Embranchement
    Negarnaviricota
    Ordre
    Nidovirales
    Sous-ordre
    Cornidovirineae
    Famille
    Coronaviridae
    Sous-famille
    Orthocoronaviridae
    Genre
    Betacoronavirus
    Sous-genre
    Sarbecovirus
    Espèce
    2019-nCoV a
    OMS1, CDC2
    Le coronavirus de Wuhan (chinois simplifié : 武汉冠状病毒 ; chinois traditionnel : 武漢冠狀病毒), désigné internationalement sous le terme novel Coronavirus abrégé 2019-nCoV3,4, parfois appelé virus de la pneumonie du marché aux fruits de mer de Wuhan5, est le coronavirus à l'origine de l’épidémie de pneumonie de Wuhan. Il a été signalé pour la première fois dans la ville de Wuhan (province de Hubei), d'où son nom. Apparenté au coronavirus du SRAS, il appartient au sous-genre des Sarbecovirus6.
    Son génome, constitué d'un ARN simple-brin de 29903 nucléotides, a été séquencé pour la première fois le 5 janvier 2020 par une équipe de l'université Fudan de Shanghai (Chine)7,8,9.
    L'archive de prépublications bioRxiv, ainsi que divers forums de chercheurs, permettent une diffusion rapide — mais non formellement validée par les pairs — de l'information scientifique concernant 2019-nCoV10. Les premiers articles scientifiques validés par les pairs sont publiés le 24 janvier 202011,12.
    Depuis le 21 janvier 2020, l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé tient à jour un bilan quotidien de la situation au niveau mondial (en anglais)13, et une « foire aux questions » sur le nouveau virus (en français)14. L'Université Johns Hopkins met à disposition une carte de l'épidémie actualisée en temps réel15.

    Sommaire
    1
    Symptômes chez l'homme
    2
    Taxonomie et Phylogénie; origine du virus
    3
    Épidémiologie; dispersion du virus
    4
    Biologie moléculaire; fonctionnement du virus
    5
    Traitement
    6
    Notes et références
    7
    Voir aussi
    7.1
    Articles connexes
    7.2
    Liens externes
    Symptômes chez l'homme[modifier | modifier le code]
    Les maladies que provoquent les coronavirus peuvent aller du rhume (ils en sont la seconde cause aux États-Unis16) à des maladies plus graves telles que le syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS, épidémie en 2003) et le syndrome respiratoire du Moyen-Orient (MERS, épidémie en 2012). Seuls six coronavirus (229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV) étaient auparavant connus pour infecter des humains ; 2019-nCoV serait donc le septième.
    Une première description scientifiquement éprouvée de la pathologie et de l'épidémiologie de 2019-nCoV a été publiée le 24 janvier 2020 par un consortium de médecins de Wuhan et de Beijing12.
    Les symptômes rapportés qui ressemblent grossièrement à ceux de la grippe saisonnière incluent la fièvre, la fatigue, une toux sèche, un manque de souffle, des difficultés à respirer17, la pneumonie, une insuffisance rénale, et le décès dans les cas sévères18,19. Aux alentours de 3%13, la létalité reste faible en comparaison avec celle du SARS-CoV par exemple.
    La majorité des patients hospitalisés présentent des signes vitaux stables lors de leur admission, ainsi qu'un manque de globules blancs, spécifiquement un manque de lymphocytes17. Toutefois, un quart des patients diagnostiqués avaient des symptômes sévères. Une étude sur les 41 premiers patients hospitalisés avec un diagnostic confirmé du virus à Wuhan a relevé qu'une majorité de ceux-ci étaient en bonne santé avant leur infection, un tiers ayant été concerné par des problèmes de santé préalables. Les trois quarts des patients toussaient, un peu plus de la moitié ressentait une gêne respiratoire, et un tiers avait des difficultés respiratoires sévères nécessitant des soins intensifs20,21. Le 23 janvier 2020, l'OMS déclare que la plupart des patients décédés avaient un système immunitaire affaibli dû à des problèmes de santé tels que l'hypertension, le diabète ou une maladie cardiovasculaire22.
    Taxonomie et Phylogénie; origine du virus[modifier | modifier le code]
    Le virus 2019-nCoV appartient au genre Betacoronavirus, dans la famille Coronaviridae.
    Dix-huit génomes ont été isolés et signalés23, notamment BetaCoV / Wuhan / IVDC-HB-01/2019, BetaCoV / Wuhan / IVDC-HB-04/2020, BetaCoV / Wuhan / IVDC-HB-05/2019, BetaCoV / Wuhan / WIV04 / 2019 et BetaCoV / Wuhan / IPBCAMS-WH-01/2019 du CDC chinois (en), de l'Institut de biologie des agents pathogènes et de l'hôpital Wuhan Jinyintan24,25. Les séquences de 2019-nCoV présentent des similitudes avec les bétacoronavirus trouvés chez les chauves-souris26,27. 2019-nCoV est génétiquement distinct des autres coronavirus humains tels que ceux liés au SRAS28 et au MERS26; toutefois proche du SARS-CoV, il fait partie comme lui du sous-genre Sarbecovirus29,30,31.
    Une analyse phylogénétique et génomique publiée le 22 janvier 2020 excluait quasiment une descendance directe de 2019-nCoV à partir de SARS-CoV28: selon ses auteurs un événement de recombinaison homologue pourrait avoir mélangé un bétacoronavirus de « clade A » (virus de type Bat SARS CoVZC45 et CoVZXC21) avec un bétacoronavirus encore inconnu. Cette étude suggère par ailleurs, en examinant la fréquence d'usage des codons, qu'un serpent de la région de Wuhan serait le « réservoir d'animaux sauvages le plus probable » pour 2019-nCOV (bien qu'aucun coronavirus ne soit connu dans les animaux à sang froid), ce qui a été repris par la presse32; cette dernière interprétation a toutefois été remise en cause le jour même, et l'origine « serpent » écartée33,34. L'hypothèse d'une recombinaison a quant à elle été écartée elle aussi quelques jours plus tard par une équipe grecque35.
    Épidémiologie; dispersion du virus[modifier | modifier le code]
    Le marché en gros de fruits de mer de Wuhan (en), près de la gare de Hankou, a été identifié comme la source initiale de l'épidémie dans la première annonce officielle par les autorités de Wuhan, le 31 décembre 201936. Les premiers symptômes attribuables a posteriori à 2019-nCoV sont toutefois apparus dès le 1er décembre 2019 chez un patient qui n'avait pas fréquenté ce marché12, de même qu'un tiers des 41 cas signalés à Wuhan en décembre 2019. Le marché a été fermé au lendemain de l'alerte, le 1er janvier 2020.
    Dans les premières semaines de l'épidémie de 2019-2020, le virus s'est propagé par l'intermédiaire de voyageurs vers différents pays d'Asie37,38,39, le 21 janvier en Amérique du Nord40 et, le 24 janvier, en Australie41 et en Europe (3 cas confirmés en France sur des patients ayant récemment voyagé en Chine42). Il y a eu 107 décès, principalement dans la province du Hubei, et plus de plus de 4400 cas confirmés15. Les scientifiques du Centre d'analyse des maladies infectieuses mondiales du Medical Research Council de l'Imperial College de Londres estiment que jusqu'à 4 000 personnes sont infectées par 2019-nCoV dans la ville de Wuhan43.
    Le 20 janvier 2020, la transmission interhumaine a été confirmée dans le Guangdong, en Chine, selon Zhong Nanshan, chef de l'équipe de la commission de la santé enquêtant sur l'épidémie44. La première description scientifiquement détaillée d'une transmission interhumaine au sein d'une famille a été publiée par une équipe de médecins de Hong-Kong et de Shenzen le 24 janvier 201911.
    Le taux de reproduction (Ro) préliminaire de 2019-nCoV, c’est-à-dire le nombre moyen de personnes infectées par un patient, a été estimé entre 1,4 et 2,5 par l'OMS le 23 janvier 202045. Il serait comparable à celui de SRAS-CoV et de la grippe de 1918, compris entre 1,4 et 3,846.
    Le temps d'Incubation de 2019-nCoV est estimé entre 2 et 14 jours47, la durée de vie du virus hors organisme est quant à elle estimée entre 3 heures (en milieu sec) et 3 jours (en milieu humide), excluant la possibilité de contamination par colis, qui dans les cas les plus rapides, parcourent la distance Chine–États-Unis en 4 jours48.
    Biologie moléculaire; fonctionnement du virus[modifier | modifier le code]
    Le nouveau génome a conduit à plusieurs expériences de modélisation de protéines sur la protéine de liaison aux récepteurs (RBD) de la protéine nCoV spike (S). Au 23 janvier 2020, deux groupes chinois pensent que la protéine S conserve une affinité suffisante avec le récepteur du SRAS (enzyme de conversion de l'angiotensine 2, ACE2) pour l'utiliser comme mécanisme d'entrée cellulaire49; l'identification de ACE2 comme récepteur cellulaire est également décrite par deux autres groupes de chercheurs26,50.
    Traitement[modifier | modifier le code]
    2019-nCoV est de nature virale. Les antibiotiques et les bactériophagiques sont donc inadaptés : ils ne traitent que les pathologies bactériennes.
    Aucun traitement spécifique n'est actuellement disponible, mais des antiviraux existants pourrait être repositionnés51.
    Les traitements reçus par les patients concernent donc essentiellement les symptômes, afin de favoriser leur guérison spontanée15.
    À plus long terme, plusieurs équipes internationales travaillent à la mise au point ou à l'adaptation d'un vaccin52.
    Notes et références[modifier | modifier le code]
    (en) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l’article de Wikipédia en anglais intitulé « Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) » (voir la liste des auteurs).
    ↑ La notation nCoV fait référence à Novel Coronavirus, qui est la dénomination provisoire standard pour tous les nouveaux coronavirus en attente de classification taxonomique pouvant infliger la mort, établie.
    ↑ (en) « Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) » [archive], sur https://www.who.int/ [archive], OMS (consulté le 25 janvier 2020).
    ↑ (en) « 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Wuhan, China » [archive], sur https://www.cdc.gov/ [archive], CDC (consulté le 25 janvier 2020).
    ↑ « Surveillance case definitions for human infection with novel coronavirus (nCoV) » [archive], who.int (consulté le 21 janvier 2020).
    ↑ « Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Wuhan, China » [archive], cdc.gov, cdc.gov, 10 janvier 2020 (consulté le 16 janvier 2020).
    ↑ (en) « Wuhan seafood market pneumonia virus » [archive], sur NCBI (consulté le 23 janvier 2020).
    ↑ (en) « Phylogeny of SARS-like betacoronaviruses including novel coronavirus from Wuhan using data generated by the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center & School of Public Health, the National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, the Institute of Pathogen Biology, and the Wuhan Institute of Virology shared via GISAID » [archive], sur https://nextstrain.org/ [archive], 16 janvier 2020 (consulté le 25 janvier 2020).
    ↑ « New-type coronavirus causes pneumonia in Wuhan: expert – Xinhua | English.news.cn » [archive] (consulté le 9 janvier 2020).
    ↑ « CoV2020 » [archive], platform.gisaid.org (consulté le 12 janvier 2020).
    ↑ (en) Wu, F. et al., « Wuhan seafood market pneumonia virus isolate Wuhan-Hu-1, complete genome » [archive], sur GenBank, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020).
    ↑ (en) « 2019-nCoV in bioRxiv » [archive], sur bioRxiv (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a et b (en) Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Shuofeng Yuan, Kin-Hang Kok et Kelvin Kai-Wang To, « A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster », The Lancet,‎ janvier 2020, S0140673620301549 (DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a b et c (en) Chaolin Huang, Yeming Wang, Xingwang Li et Lili Ren, « Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China », The Lancet,‎ janvier 2020, S0140673620301835 (DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a et b (en) « Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) situation reports » [archive], sur www.who.int (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Questions fréquentes sur les nouveaux ‎coronavirus » [archive], sur www.who.int (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a b et c (en-US) « Wuhan Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) global cases (by JHU CSSE) » [archive], sur Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Marie E. Killerby, Holly M. Biggs, Amber Haynes et Rebecca M. Dahl, « Human coronavirus circulation in the United States 2014–2017 », Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 101,‎ avril 2018, p. 52–56 (DOI 10.1016/j.jcv.2018.01.019, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a et b (en) Hui DS, I Azhar E, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R,, Dar O, Ippolito G, Mchugh TD, Mchugh TD, Memish ZA et al., « The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health – The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China », International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 91,‎ 14 janvier 2020, p. 264-266 (PMID 31953166, DOI 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 26 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en-CA) « Wuhan Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) » [archive], sur Ontario.ca, 25 janvier 2020 (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Experts explain the latest bulletin of unknown cause of viral pneumonia » [archive du 11 janvier 2020], sur Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, 11 janvier 2020 (consulté le 11 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Coronavirus : ce que l'on sait des premiers patients touchés par l'épidémie » [archive], sur Franceinfo, 25 janvier 2020 (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Chaolin Huang, Yeming Wang, Xingwang Li et Lili Ren, « Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China », The Lancet,‎ janvier 2020, S0140673620301835 (DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Déclaration du Directeur général de l’OMS sur les recommandations ‎du Comité d’urgence du RSI sur le ‎nouveau coronavirus » [archive], sur www.who.int, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ Trevor Bedford and Richard Neher, « Genomic epidemiology of novel coronavirus (nCoV) using data generated by Fudan University, China CDC, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Thai National Institute of Health shared via GISAID » [archive], nextstrain.org (consulté le 22 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Initial genome release of novel coronavirus » [archive], Virological, 11 janvier 2020 (consulté le 12 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Wu, F. et al., « Wuhan seafood market pneumonia virus isolate Wuhan-Hu-1, complete genome » [archive], sur GenBank, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020)

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a b et c (en) Shi, ZL et al., « Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin », bioRxiv,‎ 23 janvier 2020 (lire en ligne [archive])
    ↑ (en) Benvenuto D. et al., « The 2019-new Coronavirus epidemic: evidence for virus evolution », bioRxiv.org,‎ 24 janvier 2020 (lire en ligne [archive])

    Revenir plus haut en :
    a et b Ji, Wang, Zhao et Zai, « Homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein of the newly identified coronavirus may boost cross‐species transmission from snake to human », Journal of Medical Virology,‎ 22 janvier 2020 (DOI 10.1002/jmv.25682)
    ↑ « Phylogeny of SARS-like betacoronaviruses » [archive], nextstrain (consulté le 18 janvier 2020)
    ↑ Hui DS, I Azhar E, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R, Dar O, Ippolito G, Mchugh TD, Memish ZA, Drosten C, Zumla A, Petersen E. The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health – The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Jan 14;91:264–266. PMID 31953166 [archive] DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009
    ↑ Antonio C. P. Wong, Xin Li, Susanna K. P. Lau, Patrick C. Y. Woo: Global Epidemiology of Bat Coronaviruses [archive], in: Viruses. 2019 Feb; 11(2): 174, doi:10.3390/v11020174
    ↑ CNN: Snakes could be the source of the Wuhan coronavirus outbreak [archive]
    ↑ (en-US) Robertson D.L., « nCoV's relationship to bat coronaviruses & recombination signals (no snakes) » [archive], sur Virological, 22 janvier 2020 (consulté le 24 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Callaway E. et Cyranoski D., « Why snakes probably aren’t spreading the new China virus », Nature,‎ 23 janvier 2020 (ISSN 0028-0836 et 1476-4687, DOI 10.1038/d41586-020-00180-8, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Dimitrios Paraskevis, Evangelia Georgia Kostaki, Gkikas Magiorkinis et Georgios Panayiotakopoulos, « Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event », bioRxiv, Microbiology,‎ 27 janvier 2020 (DOI 10.1101/2020.01.26.920249, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 28 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (zh) « Notice d'information de la Commission municipale de la santé de Wuhan sur la situation actuelle de l'épidémie de pneumonie dans notre ville [en chinois] » [archive], sur http://wjw.wuhan.gov.cn/ [archive], 31 décembre 2019 (consulté le 28 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) « China coronavirus: Hong Kong scraps major Lunar New Year events » [archive], sur South China Morning Post, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) hermesauto, « Wuhan virus: Vietnam confirms 2 cases of Sars-like coronavirus » [archive], The Straits Times, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) hermesauto, « Singapore confirms first case of Wuhan virus » [archive], The Straits Times, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « New Virus Spreads to U.S., Sparking Rush to Contain Outbreak » [archive], sur www.bloomberg.com, 21 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Scott Morrison, « Update on Coronavirus pic.twitter.com/Ol8DRQtVQJ » [archive], sur @ScottMorrisonMP, 24 janvier 2020 (consulté le 25 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Coronavirus : un troisième cas d’infection confirmé en France », Le Monde.fr,‎ 24 janvier 2020 (lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 24 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en-GB) « Lockdowns rise as China tries to control virus », BBC News,‎ 23 janvier 2020 (lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Associated Press, « China confirms human-to-human transmission of new coronavirus » [archive], sur CBC.ca, 20 janvier 2020 (consulté le 23 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) « Statement on the meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus 2019 (n-CoV) on 23 January 2020 » [archive], sur www.who.int (consulté le 26 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Julien Riou et Christian L. Althaus, « Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019-nCoV », bioRxiv,‎ 24 janvier 2020, p. 2020.01.23.917351 (DOI 10.1101/2020.01.23.917351, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 25 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en-US) Roni Caryn Rabin, « What Is the Coronavirus? Symptoms, Treatment and Risks », The New York Times,‎ 21 janvier 2020 (ISSN 0362-4331, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « VERIFY: Can you get Coronavirus from packages shipped from China? » [archive], sur wbir.com (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) Xu, X. et al., « Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission », SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences,‎ 21 janvier 2020 (lire en ligne [archive])
    ↑ (en) Michael C. Letko et Vincent Munster, « Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for lineage B β-coronaviruses, including 2019-nCoV », bioRxiv,‎ 22 janvier 2020 (DOI 10.1101/2020.01.22.915660, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 23 janvier 2020)
    ↑ (en) « WHO says new China coronavirus could spread, warns hospitals worldwide », Reuters,‎ 14 janvier 2020 (lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 28 janvier 2020)
    ↑ « Coronavirus : « La France travaille à un vaccin » », La Croix,‎ 22 janvier 2020 (ISSN 0242-6056, lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 28 janvier 2020)
    Voir aussi[modifier | modifier le code]
    Articles connexes[modifier | modifier le code]
    Épidémie du coronavirus de 2019-2020
    Syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS)
    Syndrome respiratoire du Moyen-Orient (MERS)
    Liens externes[modifier | modifier le code]
    CDC chinois [archive] (Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention)
    Institut de Biologie des Agents pathogènes [archive] (Institute of Pathogen Biology)
    Carte de l'épidémie actualisée en temps réel [archive] par le Center for Systems Science and Engineering de la Johns Hopkins University de Baltimore1
    Questions fréquentes sur les nouveaux ‎coronavirus [archive] et Rapports quotidiens de situation sur le nouveau Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) [en anglais] [archive] par l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé
    Portail de la virologie Portail de la médecine
    ↑ (en-US) Gardner L., « Mapping the Wuhan Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) » [archive], sur systems.jhu.edu, 23 janvier 2020 (consulté le 27 janvier 2020)
    Catégories : Événement en coursCoronaviridaeVirus du groupe IV2019 en Chine2020 en Chine[+]


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    Umbrella Corporation
    "Umbrella Corporation" and "Umbrella Corp." redirect here. For the spin-off video game in the series, see Umbrella Corps.
    Umbrella Corporation
    Umbrella Corporation logo.svg
    "Our Business Is Life Itself"
    The fictional slogan and symbol of Umbrella Corporation from the Resident Evil franchise
    Type
    Corporation and laboratory
    Industry Pharmaceutical
    Founded 1968
    Founder Oswell E. Spencer
    Headquarters Raccoon City, United States
    Products
    Computers
    Pharmaceutical
    Medical supplies
    Consumer products
    Genetic engineering
    Urban Pacification Tools
    Military grade hardware
    Food products
    Cosmetics
    The Umbrella Corporation is an international pharmaceutical company in the Resident Evil universe. Founded in 1968 by prominent British royal descendants Oswell E. Spencer and Edward Ashford, along with Dr. James Marcus, it is portrayed in the series as a major international player in pharmaceutical goods and medical supplies, along with more clandestine operations utilizing genetic engineering. Their legitimate status is only a front for their secret research of "bio-organic weapons" (B.O.W.s), developed through the use of a unique virus discovered by the company founders.[3] The company is also presented as having a more public face, producing cosmetics, consumer products, and foods. Umbrella established multiple secret research facilities to help develop various bio-weapons. Its most prominent research facility is located in the Arklay Mountains, just outside Raccoon City, which was able to develop the "T-virus", a powerful mutagen that could dramatically alter living and recently dead organisms. The virus leaked and contaminated most of the Arklay Facility and its surrounding area, setting the stage for the first Resident Evil game. Following the destruction of Raccoon City, all of Umbrella's assets were frozen by the U.S. Government and its trading rights were revoked, effectively terminating its operations. However, it did not stop the rise of several bioterrorist organizations around the world, some of them making use of its research, leading to the foundation of B.S.A.A. In Resident Evil 7: Biohazard, it is revealed that Umbrella has been reinstated and seemingly reformed as a mercenary group.

    Oswell E. Spencer
    Voiced by: Adam D. Clark (RE5)
    Motion capture: Adam D. Clark (RE5)
    Oswell E. Spencer (オズウェル・E・スペンサー, Ozuweru E Supensā) is one of Resident Evil's most mysterious characters. In the series, he is the owner and co-founder of the Umbrella Corporation, a pharmaceutical drug company that secretly manufactures bio-organic weapons.[4] His colleagues, James Marcus and Edward Ashford, join his company, but they show more interest in studying the newly discovered Progenitor virus.[4] Eventually, Edward Ashford dies, and Spencer seizes control of the company and its research by sending his subordinates, Albert Wesker and William Birkin, to assassinate Marcus.[5][6] Spencer conducts some of his company’s research in the Arklay Research Facility, located in the Arklay Mountains. He hires George Trevor, a famous architect, to construct a mansion to conceal the facility.[7] Spencer's plans progress smoothly, until Marcus returns from the dead,[8] and begins to seek revenge with the help of his test subjects. Marcus destroys one of Spencer’s luxury trains, and causes a viral outbreak in the Arklay Research Facility.[9] The outbreak spreads throughout the region, sparking the events of Resident Evil Zero and the original Resident Evil. The virus subsequently spreads to Raccoon City during the events of Resident Evil 2 and Resident Evil 3: Nemesis, prompting the U.S. government to attempt to contain the outbreak by ordering the destruction of the city.[10] After the city's destruction, Spencer attempts to disguise the incident as a government conspiracy by hiring top lawyers and false witnesses. His actions prolong the legal proceedings, and allow the Umbrella Corporation to stay afloat for five more years. Ultimately, Wesker betrays Spencer by handing over secret documents to the U.S. government,[11] and seals Spencer's doom by personally testifying against him in court. Umbrella's business license is summarily suspended, and the U.S. government works swiftly to dismantle the remains of the organization.[12] After Umbrella's public fall from grace, Spencer retreats to his mansion in Europe. He is eventually located by Chris Redfield and Jill Valentine prior to the events of Resident Evil 5, but is swiftly killed by Wesker before the two can reach him. His first name is written as Oswell in the original version, but misspelled as "Ozwell" in the English version.

    UBCS
    One of Umbrella's subsidiaries is UBCS (Umbrella Biohazard Countermeasure Service), a private military company with a highly trained security force composed of mostly war criminals and exiled soldiers[13] and capable of rescue and reconnaissance paramilitary operations. The corporation also uses its top-secret special forces group to secure and protect its assets and high-profile employees.

    Carlos Oliveira
    Voiced by (English): Vince Corazza (RE3), Scott McNeil (Under the Skin), Kim Strauss (The Umbrella Chronicles), Gideon Emery (Operation Raccoon City)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Shoto Kashii (Under the Skin), Hiroki Yasumoto (Operation Raccoon City)
    Played by: Oded Fehr (Apocalypse, Extinction, Retribution)
    Carlos Oliveira (カルロス・オリヴェイラ, Karurosu Orivueira), the second main character of Resident Evil 3,[13] is a mercenary and a former member of a South American communist guerrilla group. After the government forces wiped out his organization, Carlos was scouted out by the Umbrella Corporation to join Umbrella's UBCS. He joined the force and was assigned to Delta Platoon, Company A (serving alongside Nicholai Ginovaef and Mikhail Victor), which was in charge of heavy firearms and weapons maintenance.[13] Despite his violent background, he is warm-hearted and known for joking around.[14] In Resident Evil 3, Carlos assists Jill Valentine throughout the game as the two of them attempt to escape Raccoon City. At one point Jill becomes infected by the T-virus after a battle with The Nemesis. At this point Carlos becomes playable so that the player can prepare a vaccine for Jill. Ultimately he is successful in escaping the city along with Jill. He reprises his role in The Umbrella Chronicles, where the events of Resident Evil 3 are revisited in the "Raccoon's Destruction" scenario, in which Carlos is a playable character alongside Jill Valentine.

    In the live action films his name is spelled Olivera, indicating a character background change from Brazil (Portuguese, "Oliveira") to a Hispanic country (Spanish, "Olivera"). In the second film he is briefly infected with the T-virus, but Alice is able to find a sample of the antivirus in time to cure him. In the third film, he and Alice parted company five years ago when Alice sought to protect her allies from the Umbrella satellites tracking her, but they meet again when he is travelling with a convoy led by Claire Redfield. When Carlos is bitten during an attempt to capture Alice, he volunteers to mount a suicide run on the umbrella complex tracking Alice after it takes a series of prisoners from the convoy, reasoning that there is no time to get a sample of the antivirus before the infection becomes permanent, taking a fuel tanker into the mass of zombies surrounding the base and then setting off a series of bombs, taking out a sizeable number of zombies and breaching the complex defenses.

    Mikhail Victor
    Voiced by: Benedict Campbell (RE3)
    Mikhail Victor (ミハイル・ヴィクトール, Mihairu Vikutōru) is the leader of the UBCS Delta platoon that both Nicholai and Carlos are members of. According to his backstory, Mikhail is from Saint Petersburg, Russia, and had originally served in the army before joining a rebel group. Mikhail was eventually arrested by Russian government forces and convicted for acts of terrorism. He was then coerced into leading the UBCS in exchange for his men's freedom.[15] In the game, he appears already wounded, choosing to sacrifice his own life to save Jill and Carlos as he dies after being blown apart by his own grenade in a failed attempt to destroy the Nemesis. In an early draft of the story, Mikhail was originally scripted to be Nicholai's older brother, hence their common nationality and close ages (his original name was Mikhail Ginovaef).[15] He is the only one of the main UBCS operatives not to appear in the film Resident Evil: Apocalypse, where he is replaced by an original character named Yuri Loginova.

    Nikolai Zinoviev
    Voiced by (English): Roger Honeywell (RE3), Rick D. Wasserman (Operation Raccoon City)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Kenta Miyake (Operation Raccoon City)
    Played by: Zack Ward (Apocalypse)
    Nicholai Ginovaef (ニコライ・ジノビエフ, Nikorai Jinobiefu, a mistransliteration of the actual Russian name "Nikolai Zinoviev") is a member of the UBCS Delta platoon, Company B. According to his backstory, Nicholai is from Moscow and served in the Russian Spetsnaz before joining the UBCS. He also has an unspoken rivalry with HUNK from Resident Evil 2. Nikolai meets Jill as one of the few surviving operatives from the Delta platoon, along with Carlos and Mikhail. He disappears after an event in the first half of the game and is presumed dead until another encounter with him. Nikolai is in fact one of the Supervisors UBCS operatives assigned to watch and gather combat data as their comrades fight against Umbrella's bio-weapons. Nicholai's fate varies depending on which route the player takes. In one scene, he is slaughtered by the Nemesis and his corpse is left hanging in an air duct. Another possible outcome shows Nicholai stealing Jill's intended escape helicopter. At this point, the player has the option of attempting to negotiate with him, in which he escapes from the city successfully, or choose to fight back against Nikolai, destroying the helicopter along with him. The English localization of Resident Evil Survivor features a document supposedly authored by Nicholai after the events of Nemesis. The file is different in the original Japanese version and the Chinese localization of the PC port. The third entry of the document (the portion dated after the events of Nemesis) was actually authored by the "Umbrella B.O.W. Development Staff", rather than Nikolai.[16] Nikolai also appears in Resident Evil Outbreak in the final scenario "Decisions, Decisions" which depicts the character conducting another mission occurring during the same time period as the second half of Resident Evil 3. He is mentioned in The Umbrella Chronicles, where he is referred to by the codename "Silver Fox". Nicholai's role in Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City was stopping Wolfpack from completing their mission objective. The character was adapted for the film Resident Evil: Apocalypse, although the film features a more heroic depiction of Nikolai, which differs from the game's original antagonistic portrayal of the character. In the film's novelization, he was renamed Nicholai Sokolov. Nicholai is ultimately torn to shreds by zombie dogs while holding them off so Alice and Jill can escape.

    Sergei Vladimir
    Voiced by: Patrick Seitz (The Umbrella Chronicles)
    Sergei Vladimir (セルゲイ・ウラジミール, Serugei Urajimīru) is a high-ranking Russian employee of Umbrella and the main antagonist of Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles. Following the fall of the Soviet Union, he approached the Umbrella Corporation and quickly became one of the company's top officers. He became personally acquainted with Umbrella's founder, Ozwell E. Spencer, who began to rely on Sergei as a loyal and effective enforcer. Sergei subsequently formed and led Umbrella's UBCS,[17] as well as Umbrella's internal espionage organization, Monitor. Agents that answered directly to Sergei included the likes of Nicholai Ginovaef. Sergei undertakes the Umbrella Corporation's most important tasks through the Resident Evil series, including stealing the Red Queen from the Arklay Research Facility, extracting an Umbrella executive from Raccoon City before its destruction, and securing important research information.[18] Sergei is killed by Albert Wesker while attempting to prevent him from stealing a database containing the Umbrella Corporations most important documents and research data.[19]

    USS
    The Umbrella Security Service were first introduced in Resident Evil 2. USS Alpha team attempted to steal a sample of the G-virus, causing the citywide outbreak in the game. Delta team appeared in the prequel Resident Evil Zero, in which the team was sent in to blow up the Ecliptic Express after the trouble occurred, but was overwhelmed by the leeches and wiped out. Delta team was under the direct command of Wesker and Birkin. According to Code: Veronica, USFU agents were trained at the Rockfort Island facility.

    Ghost
    "Ghost" is an Umbrella Secret Service (USS) soldier that was made playable in Resident Evil 2 (2019 version) in a mode called The Ghost Survivors. Little is known about him as a person, but he does not survive long enough to get out of Raccoon City. He has to contend with zombies covered in armour. His story is told in a chapter, referred to as "Forgotten Soldier".[20]

    HUNK
    Voiced by (English): Keith Silverstein (The Umbrella Chronicles, The Darkside Chronicles, Operation Raccoon City, Revelations, REmake 2)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Masaki Terasoma (Operation Raccoon City, Revelations, REmake 2)
    HUNK (ハンク, HANKU) is a member of the Umbrella Security Service Unit in Resident Evil 2.[21] He is also known as "Mr. Death" for being the sole survivor of several operations.[22] HUNK appears in Resident Evil 2 and is playable in a secret minigame entitled "4th Survivor". This short scenario entails HUNK's journey to escape Raccoon City, beginning with his awakening in the sewers and eventually leading to his extraction from the city. He is the only member of his unit to survive the attack of the mutated William Birkin that takes place shortly after he secured a sample of the G-virus for Umbrella.[21] He reappears in The Umbrella Chronicles, in a remake of the "4th Survivor" scenario where the player must reach the helipad for extraction from Raccoon City, and during the "Memories of a Lost City" scenario in Resident Evil: The Darkside Chronicles.[23] HUNK is playable in the "Mercenaries" minigame in Resident Evil 4, but has no relation to the story.[23] HUNK appears as a side character in Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City, where he works with other Umbrella Security Service operatives to recover a sample of the G-virus prior to the events of Resident Evil 2. He is also a playable character in Resident Evil: The Mercenaries 3D, Resident Evil Revelations, and Resident Evil Revelations 2.

    Umbrella Corps
    The Umbrella Corps, also known as Blue Umbrella, are a newly formed Mercenary group working on a newly reformed Umbrella Corporation, whose objective is to carry out extraction missions requested from several pharmaceutical companies. They all serve as the main protagonists in Umbrella Corps and play a vital role in Resident Evil 7: Biohazard.

    Veronica
    She assists Chris Redfield via radio during Umbrella's mission depicted in Not a Hero, a downloadable chapter for Resident Evil 7: Biohazard.[24] Her role is essentially similar to Hunnigan from Resident Evil 4.[25]

    3A7
    Voiced by: D. C. Douglas
    Notable researchers
    Alexia Ashford
    Voiced by: Leila Johnson (Code Veronica), Karen Strassman (The Darkside Chronicles)
    Alexia Ashford (アレクシア・アシュフォード, Arekushia Ashufōdo) is the primary antagonist of Resident Evil Code: Veronica. Along with her twin brother, Alfred, she is the product of an experiment by her father, the Umbrella's chief senior virologist researcher, Alexander (the son of the corporation's deceased co-founder Edward Ashford; he was later himself turned by Alexia into an undead monster called Nosferatu). The genetic material of her ancestor Veronica Ashford was inserted into an embryo and implanted in a surrogate mother in an attempt to reproduce Veronica's legendary intelligence and beauty. Having successfully inherited these traits, Alexia sought to become an unstoppable world dictator by injecting herself with the T-Veronica Virus and freezing herself for several years in order to retain her own personality and allow her body to control the virus, rather than vice versa. She awakes during the events of Code Veronica, after her brother Alfred dies. In revenge for this, she sends one of her tentacle monsters to capture Claire and Steve, experimenting on the latter and turning him into a large monster. She is confronted by Albert Wesker towards the end of the game and mutates into her first form. The two battle each other and she drives him off, but is then defeated by Chris. She revives and appears at the very end of the game as the last boss, mutating into another 2 forms before Chris kills her for good with the Linear Launcher.

    In 2009, IGN ranked her as the series' most fearsome villain.[26]

    Annette Birkin
    Voiced by (English): Jennifer Dale (RE2), Deborah Sale Butler (DC), Karen Strassman (REmake 2)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Marika Hayashi (REmake 2)
    Motion capture: Keren Strassman (REmake 2)
    Annette Birkin (アネット・バーキン, Anetto Bākin) is a supporting character in Resident Evil 2. She is involved in Bio Organic Weapon research at Umbrella, working with her husband William to create the G-Virus. During the Raccoon City outbreak, Annette works to stop Umbrella's experiments from spreading further into the city. She leaves their daughter Sherry at the Raccoon Police Department with a pendant containing the virus, hoping Irons can protect her. During the game's events, Annette helps Claire cure Sherry's G-virus infection and reveals Ada's true motives to Leon. She is fatally injured, forcing them to leave her behind. Annette appears in the game's remake, maintaining the same role as in the original game, and its retelling in The Darkside Chronicles.

    James Marcus
    Played by: Mark Simpson (RE: TFC)
    James Marcus (ジェームス・マーカス, Jēmusu Mākasu) is one of the primary antagonists in the Resident Evil Series. Years before the events of the first Resident Evil, he was one of the top virologist researchers of the Umbrella Corporation and a head of its personnel training facility, personally appointed by Ozwell E. Spencer to work with the Mother virus. In this capacity, Marcus played an integral role in developing the T-virus and the Tyrant and Nemesis programs, also conducting extensive research on leeches that led to the development of the G-virus, up until his sudden disappearance in 1988.[27] Spencer betrayed him by sending Marcus' direct subordinates, Albert Wesker and William Birkin, to murder him and steal his research.[5] Approximately a decade later, Marcus rose from the dead with the aid of his leeches.[8] He exacts his vengeance upon Spencer by contaminating the Spencer Mansion, one of the Umbrella Corporation's secret research facilities, with the T-virus, which trigger the events of the first Resident Evil game.[9] Marcus plays a larger role in the game's prequel, Resident Evil Zero, which details the accounts of his resurrection, vendetta, and ultimate downfall at the hands of Rebecca Chambers and Billy Coen. He also appears in The Umbrella Chronicles.[28]

    William Birkin
    Voiced by (English): Diego Matamoros (RE2), T.J. Rotolo (The Darkside Chronicles, Operation Raccoon City, REmake 2)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Toshihiko Seki (Operation Raccoon City, 0, REmake 2)
    Motion capture: T.J. Rotolo (REmake 2)
    Played by: Jason Isaacs (RE)
    William Birkin (ウィリアム・バーキン, Wiriamu Bākin) is one of the main antagonists in the Resident Evil series, specifically Resident Evil 2. After completing his G-virus project, he is mortally wounded by agents of the Umbrella Special Forces and his work is stolen. Left for dead, he injects himself with the G-virus, thus turning himself into a monster known as "G". He then kills his attackers, causing a T-virus vial to be leaked into the city's drainage system, resulting in the zombie outbreak in Raccoon City. During the course of the game, he encounters the main characters, Claire Redfield and Leon S. Kennedy, as he undergoes gradual mutation and begins losing any resemblance of his original human form. He is eventually defeated by Claire and Leon, with the help of his daughter Sherry. Birkin is mentioned in Wesker's Report as the scientist who helped Wesker fake his death and is retroactively mentioned in the GameCube remake of the first Resident Evil. He also makes an appearance in Resident Evil Zero, where he assists Wesker from behind the scenes, and also appears in a cutscene in The Umbrella Chronicles along with Albert Wesker.[29] In 2012, IGN ranked the transformed Birkin as the second best boss in the series, calling him "a terrible abomination - one that is not easily forgotten."[30]

    In the first Resident Evil film, Birkin makes an uncredited cameo appearance as the head of the Nemesis project, who was also the film's narrator. According to an audio commentary by Paul W. S. Anderson, Isaacs was planned to reprise this role in the sequel Resident Evil: Apocalypse, but left the project for undisclosed reasons, so an original character named Dr. Alexander Isaacs (played by Iain Glen) was created to fulfill Birkin's role in the sequel.

    United Nations
    BSAA
    The BSAA (Bioterrorism Security Assessment Alliance), was a private military company formed between the events of Resident Evil 4 and Resident Evil 5. It was founded by Jill Valentine, Chris Redfield, Clive R. O'Brian, and eight others after the fall of Umbrella, with the aim of combating the increasing numbers of B.O.W.s being sold on the black market. Originally a non-government organization, the BSAA was placed under United Nations Security Council control when the U.S. government funded Federal Bioterrorism Commission (FBC) was revealed to be corrupt.

    Jessica Sherawat
    Voiced by (English): Ali Hillis (Revelations)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Nana Mizuki (Revelations)
    Jessica Sherawat is a member of the FBC, where she worked with Parker Luciani. She later became a member of the BSAA and worked with Chris Redfield in their investigation of Veltro in 2005. Most importantly, Jessica is secretly an agent working for the corrupt Morgan Lansdale and, above all, for Tricell Incorporated. As such, she betrays Chris and the BSAA. She survives the ordeal, and is given a sample of the T-Abyss virus by Raymond Vester.

    Parker Luciani
    Voiced by (English): Kirk Thornton (Revelations)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Mitsuru Miyamoto (Revelations)
    Parker was originally a member of the FBC tasked with helping out during the 2004 Veltro terrorist attack of Terragrigia. However he and his partner Jessica Sherawat barely managed to make it out alive and fled into the FBC building. During their trip to the Command Room, they met and saved the new cadet, Raymond Vester. He and Parker then bonded. At the command room, they met Morgan Lansdale, who was collaborating with Jack Norman, and in the midst of betraying him. After that, the group escaped the city. In 2005, Parker and Jill followed Chris and Jessica's last known coordinates to a stranded cruise ship named Queen Zenobia in the Mediterranean Sea. They realized that the entire crew of the Queen Zenobia had been turned into monstrous bio organic weapons named Ooze and are forced to fight for their lives. On the ship's bridge, they are surprised to meet none other than Vester who claims to be there by orders of the FBC. After Jessica is revealed to be a traitor, she sets the Queen Zenobia to self-destruct. Parker was later seen dangling above end then falling into a series of explosions after the floor he was standing on collapsed. It is ultimately revealed that Raymond Vester saved Parker from the explosion. Parker was then found adrift off the shore of the Republic of Malta in the Mediterranean Sea. He resumed his position as a Special Operations Agent for the BSAA after a month of recovery.

    Piers Nivans
    Voiced by (English): Chris Emerson (RE6)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Shuhei Sakaguchi (RE6)
    Face Model: Adam Crosman (RE6)
    Portrayed by: Wataru Kuriyama (stage play)
    Piers Nivans is a member of the North American Branch of the BSAA in Resident Evil 6. He is a talented marksman, who served under Chris Redfield during the Edonian Civil War in 2012. On one of their missions, Carla Radames infects their comrades with the C-virus and turns them into mutants. Chris is knocked unconscious in the ensuing battle but is rescued by Piers. Chris becomes disillusioned and disappears after recovering. Piers tracks down Chris and successfully convinces him to rejoin the BSAA to avenge his dead comrades. They are deployed to Lanshiang, China and tasked to stop a bio-terrorism attack. The duo are eventually led to an underwater laboratory that is being used to create powerful bio-organic weapons. Piers is severely injured during their final battle with the B.O.W., Haos, and injects himself with the C-virus to continue fighting. After he and Chris manage to defeat the Haos, they then attempt to escape the laboratory during its self-destruction sequence, but after realizing that he is beginning to succumb to the C-virus, Piers seals Chris inside an escape pod in order to ensure his survival, while he stays behind during the laboratory's destruction to prevent himself from mutating any further, sacrificing himself in the process. Right before his death, Piers manages to save Chris from the still-alive Haos by killing it as it attempts to destroy the escape pod Chris is in. Chris honors Piers's memory by remaining with the BSAA (when before, Chris thought of retiring and leaving Piers in charge).[31] Piers is mentioned by name during the epilogue in Resident Evil: Revelations 2, as he is in China with Chris.

    Sheva Alomar
    Main article: Sheva Alomar
    United States of America
    STARS
    S.T.A.R.S. (Special Tactics And Rescue Service, also known as the Special Tactics And Rescue Squad in early localizations) is a special operations force in the Raccoon Police Department, introduced in the original Resident Evil and disbanded before the events of the sequel. Its key members included Albert Wesker, Barry Burton, Brad Vickers, Chris Redfield, Enrico Marini, Forest Speyer, Jill Valentine, Joseph Frost, Kenneth J. Sullivan, Rebecca Chambers and Richard Aiken.[32]

    Besides Chris, Jill and, Wesker, Four other STARS members are major characters in the game series:

    Rebecca Chambers
    Main article: Rebecca Chambers (character)
    Barry Burton
    Voiced by (English): Barry Gjerde (RE),[33] Ed Smaron (REmake), Jamieson Price (RE5), Michael McConnohie (Revelations 2)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Yusaku Yara (Revelations 2, REmake HD Remaster)
    Played by: Gregory Smith (RE live-action cutscenes),[33][34] Kevin Durand (Retribution)
    Barry Burton (バリー・バートン, Barī Bāton) is a middle-aged (38-year-old in the original Resident Evil[35]) SWAT-veteran[32] and STARS Alpha Team's weapons specialist. In the original Resident Evil, Barry plays a supporting role in Jill's story while only appearing briefly in the opening scene of Chris' scenario. During the course of the game, it is revealed that he was blackmailed into betraying his teammates by Albert Wesker, who threatened to harm his family if he refused. He returns in Resident Evil 3: Nemesis, where he helps Jill and Carlos escape from Raccoon City before its destruction. Barry also appears in the non-canonical game Resident Evil Gaiden as one of its two player characters, and as a DLC character in the Resident Evil 5 Mercenaries Reunion mode.[35]

    After non-canon appearances in games for several years, Barry was a playable character in Resident Evil: Revelations 2. Barry arrived on Sushestvovanie Island to search for his daughter, Moira, and the returning Claire Redfield, who got captured by men sent by Alex Wesker, and used a radio tower to send out a distress call.[36] Barry also meets a little girl named Natalia Korda, who can sense the presence of hidden items, and monsters. Natalia can be controlled by the player as well as Barry, but can only use bricks to attack monsters. During the events of Resident Evil: Revelations 2, it is revealed Barry was estranged from Moira. Eventually, Barry winds up having to battle Alex Wesker, believing she killed Moira, and she targets Natalia for nefarious reasons. In the end, Barry survives the ordeal, killing Alex with Claire's help, and reconciles with Moira, who showed up belatedly to save her father and friends. Barry then adopts Natalia, with everybody unaware that Alex is now somehow part of her, following her death.

    PlayStation Universe described Barry as "something of a legend among RE aficionados, thanks in no small part to his utterly laughable dialogue segments in the original Resident Evil," adding that "he also remains one of the most genuinely likeable characters in the franchise, especially after the chaps at Capcom polished up his hammy ways for the GameCube remake."[35] In 2010, Joystick Division ranked him fifth, on a list of top supporting characters in video game history.[37]

    Brad Vickers
    Voiced by: Evan Sabba (RE3), Adam Paul (REmake), Johnny Yong Bosch (The Umbrella Chronicles)
    Brad Vickers (ブラッド・ヴィッカーズ, Buraddo Vikkāzu) is a STARS helicopter pilot and Alpha team's computer and information expert, nicknamed "Chickenheart".[32] He leaves his teammates stranded in the forest during the opening of the first Resident Evil after panicking, but returns at the end of the game to save the survivors (Jill, Chris, Barry, and Rebecca). In Resident Evil 3, despite trying to avoid any further involvement in the events surrounding Umbrella, Brad is targeted by Nemesis and eventually killed. He can be seen as a zombie in front of the police department in Resident Evil 2 if the player meets certain goals (get to the police station without picking up any items).[38]

    Richard Aiken
    Voiced by (English): Joe Whyte (REmake), Yuri Lowenthal (The Umbrella Chronicles)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Yūji Ueda (REmake HD Remaster)
    Richard Aiken (リチャード・エイケン, Richādo Eiken) is the STARS' radio communications specialist[32] and one of the Bravo Team members involved in the Spencer Mansion Incident. In the original Resident Evil game, he is found on the east wing of the Mansion's second floor, severely wounded and poisoned by a giant snake. After a brief detour to collect antivenom, Richard dies, either after imparting information and a radio (if the player returns quickly), or prior to their return. In the remake version, whilst playing as Jill, Richard will accompany the player into the fight with Yawn, sacrificing himself to push her away from a lethal attack, and being ingested by the snake. Whilst playing as Chris, Richard will be killed during the encounter with the shark-based Neptune monster. In the novel The Umbrella Conspiracy, Richard is found by Chris and Rebecca, already dead from the poison. In Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles, Richard is a companion of Rebecca. He is one of the playable characters in the multiplayer mode of Resident Evil: Deadly Silence.

    Raccoon Police Department
    The Raccoon Police Department (R.P.D.) are law enforcement service in Raccoon City.

    Brian Irons
    Voiced by (English): Gary Krawford (RE2), JB Blanc (The Darkside Chronicles), Sid Carton (REmake 2)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Akio Hirose (REmake2)
    Motion capture: Sid Carton (REmake 2)
    Brian Irons is the Police Chief of the RPD. He is secretly bribed by Umbrella to cover up the T-virus outbreak in the Arklay laboratories and their experiments with the G-virus. During the Raccoon City outbreak, Irons goes insane and begins killing people in the Department building indiscriminately, including Mayor Warren's daughter Katherine. Irons is encountered several times by Claire Redfield, who gradually learns of his alliance with Birkin and Umbrella. He is eventually killed by a mutated William Birkin. In the game's remake, Irons kidnaps Sherry Birkin and tries to use her to access the NEST facility. It is also revealed that he is also the director of an orphanage used to supply Umbrella with human test subjects, where he holds her until he can retrieve her pendant. Irons chases Sherry as she attempts to escape, but is eventually attacked and implanted with an G-Embryo. He dies when the creature erupts from his body just as Claire arrives to confront him. Irons also appears in The Darkside Chronicles, though his role is greatly downplayed to a brief confrontation with Leon and Claire.

    Elliot Edward
    Voiced by (Japanese): Kenji Takahashi (REmake 2)
    Elliot Edward is an RPD officer and minor character in Resident Evil 2. He appears in the opening minutes of Scenario B trying to reach an evacuation helicopter. However, he is attacked and killed by zombies, during which he causes the copter to crash by accidentally shooting the pilot and blocks off part of the RPD. In the remake, Elliot works with other officers in an attempt to escape the overrun RPD. Eventually discovering a way out, he is ripped apart by creatures as he attempts to get to the player's character, though is able to give them the information about a secret passage. His corpse later transforms into a zombie.

    Marvin Branagh
    Voiced by (English): Rod Wilson (RE2), Beau Billingslea (Outbreak File #2), Lex Lang (The Darkside Chronicles), Christopher Watson (REmake 2)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Fuminori Komatsu (REmake 2)
    Motion capture: Christopher Watson (REmake 2)
    Marvin Branagh is a lieutenant in the RPD. In the original game, he is discovered in Scenario A by either Leon or Claire, and informs them of the Mansion Incident. Giving them his keycard to unlock areas of the police station, he forces them to leave him behind and locks the door behind them. Marvin later transforms into a zombie and attacks the player. In the 2019 remake, he is more proactive in helping the protagonists escape the RPD and helps them unlock the passage. Marvin appears in Resident Evil Outbreak: File 2 and The Darkside Chronicles.

    DSO
    The Division of Security Operations (DSO) was an anti-bioterrorism organization under the jurisdiction of the United States federal government.

    Ingrid Hunnigan
    Voiced by (English): Salli Saffioti (RE4, Degeneration, Damnation, RE6)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Yū Sugimoto (Degeneration, Damnation, RE6)
    Motion Capture performance: Jolene Andersen (Damnation)
    Ingrid Hunnigan serves as Leon S. Kennedy's Case Officer. As an F.O.S. agent (Field Operations Support) Hunnigan provides Leon with tactical information relevant to his current situation. She assisted him during his missions to rescue Ashley Graham in Resident Evil 4 and to stop Neo-Umbrella in Resident Evil 6. She also makes brief appearances in Resident Evil: Degeneration and Resident Evil: Damnation.

    Sherry Birkin
    Voiced by (English): Lisa Yamanaka (RE2), Laura Bailey (The Darkside Chronicles), Eden Riegel (Operation Raccoon City, RE6), Eliza Pryor (REmake 2)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Hisako Kanemoto (Operation Raccoon City, child), Maaya Sakamoto (RE6, adult), Rio Sasaki (REmake 2, child)
    Motion Capture performance: Sara Fletcher (RE6), Eliza Pryor (REmake 2)
    Facial Model: Sara Fletcher (RE6)
    Sherry Birkin (シェリー・バーキン, Sherī Bākin) is the daughter of William and Annette Birkin. She first appears in Resident Evil 2, running away and hiding in Raccoon City during the outbreak. She manages to find Leon and Claire, who protect her while trying to escape the city. Sherry is a playable character in some parts of the game but she is completely unarmed and can only avoid the monsters. Her father has been transformed into a monstrous creature by the G-virus and infects her, but Claire gives Sherry an anti-virus, which prevents her from mutating. Sherry assists Leon and Claire in boarding a secret underground train, and successfully escapes Raccoon City before it is destroyed. Sherry also appears in Resident Evil: The Darkside Chronicles in chapters that recapitulate the events of Resident Evil 2. She returns as an adult in Resident Evil 6 as a government agent escorting Jake Muller and seems to have acquired great healing abilities from the remnants of the G-virus in her body. During the course of the game, she helps Jake deal with the fact that Albert Wesker is his father. She also learns from Leon S. Kennedy that her superior, Derek C. Simmons, is the man responsible for the U.S. President's death. She and Jake subsequently ally with Leon, Chris Redfield and their partners in thwarting Carla Radames' plans.

    Derek C. Simmons
    Voiced by (English): David Lodge (RE6)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Takayuki Sugō (RE6)
    Derek Clifford Simmons is the primary antagonist of Leon's campaign in Resident Evil 6. Simmons is the National Security Advisor and a close friend to Adam Benford. He is the leader of a secret organization known as "The Family", which uses its vast political influence to maintain world order. Simmons worries that Benford's plan to declassify the Raccoon City incident will create civil unrest around the world and tarnish the United States' reputation. He coerces Helena into infecting the president with the C-virus, and later causes viral outbreaks in Tall Oaks. Simmons is later betrayed by Carla Radames and infected with the C-virus. Simmons spontaneously switches between mutations as he fights Leon and Helena to the Quad Tower, where he finally falls to his death. A unique feature of Simmons' mutation is that he could absorb zombies to add more mass to his body, which took the form of a giant insect as a result.[39]

    Secret Service
    Helena Harper
    Voiced by (English): Laura Bailey (RE6)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Mayumi Sako (RE6)
    Facial model by: Natasha Alam
    Helena Harper is an agent in the Secret Security Service (USSS) and the personal bodyguard of U.S. President Adam Benford. Harper is a former CIA operative, who receives a second-chance with the USSS after facing two suspensions for using excessive force to defend her family.[40] Derek Simmons blackmails Harper into helping his organization cause a C-virus outbreak in Tall Oaks by kidnapping Helena’s sister, Deborah.[41] Benford is infected in the ensuing viral outbreak and becomes a zombie, prompting Kennedy to reluctantly shoot him in the head. Harper and Kennedy work together to locate Deborah before learning Simmons has mutated her into a BOW. Helena is forced to kill her sister, and reveals she worked with Simmons to cause the C-virus outbreak under duress. She eventually confronts and kills Simmons in Lanshiang, China. Harper is cleared of any wrongdoing after the government investigates Simmons’ background.[42]

    FBC
    The Federal Bioterrorism Commission was a United States government commission set up for handling bioterrorist operations.

    Raymond Vester
    Voiced by (English): David Vincent (Revelations)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Yasunori Matsumoto (Revelations)
    Raymond Vester was one of the top agents working in the FBC (Federal Bioterrorism Commission). At the time of the 2004 Terragrigia Panic, Raymond was an inexperienced cadet in the FBC. Injured by Veltro's Farfarello, he was rescued by the more experienced agents Parker Luciani and Jessica Sherawat. Retreating back to the conference room where FBC Commissioner Morgan Lansdale was residing, Raymond stumbled upon a telephone conversation Lansdale was having with the Veltro leader, Jack Norman. Raymond became increasingly suspicious of his commanding officer, and knew that he was somehow involved with the bio-terrorist attack. However, he was unable to act on these suspicions, as the city was evacuated and destroyed soon after. At some point after this attack, Raymond became an informant for BSAA leader Clive R. O'Brian, operating as his mole within the FBC. O'Brian and Vester devised a plan to oust Lansdale as the architect of the Terragrigia attack through engineering the "return" of Veltro. Vester would pose as Jack Norman, and O'Brian used a mountain airbase to create the illusion that the terrorist group had resurfaced. In doing so, the two hoped to collect enough evidence to expose Lansdale. During the Queen Zenobia incident, O'Brian let slip that agents Jessica Sherawat and Chris Redfield were captured by Veltro aboard the Zenobia. Intercepting this information, Lansdale sent Vester and his partner Rachael to the ship to determine if the BSAA agents supposedly on board the vessel would pose any threat to him. Vester and O'Brian agreed to push forward the schedule of their plan. After boarding the ship, Vester, with and without his Veltro disguise, encountered Luciani and Valentine on the ship's bridge, making his presence known. Soon after, Agents Sherawat and Redfield boarded the vessel. Just as Raymond was about to reveal Lansdale's secrets to the group, Lansdale's mole, Jessica Sherawat, shot Raymond in the chest, causing him to fall from the balcony. Though Raymond was wearing a bulletproof vest and was unharmed by Jessica's shot, he faked his death while in her presence and whispered critical information about the conspiracy and her true identity. He later resurfaced and helped a gravely injured Luciani escape the sinking ship. Unbeknown to Parker, both Raymond and Jessica were agents of the pharmaceutical division of TRICELL, which had promoted the development of T-Abyss. The two met in a cafe in an unnamed European country, where Vester provided Sherawat with a sample of the T-Abyss.

    Strategic Command
    Bruce McGivern
    Voiced by (English): Raj Ramayya (Dead Aim)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Hiroaki Hirata (Namco × Capcom)
    When a large amount of a recently developed hybrid viral agent known as the "T+G Virus" was stolen from the Umbrella Pharmaceuticals Development Center in Paris by a former Umbrella researcher, Bruce McGivern was sent in by the U.S. government to retrieve the virus and neutralize the threat in the Atlantic Ocean on board an Umbrella-owned luxury ocean liner, the Spencer Rain, whose entire personnel on board have been infected with the T-virus stolen by the same former researcher, Morpheus D. Duvall, in September 2002. A member of the USSTRATCOM, McGivern is cocky and brash, and has a tendency to adopt a "shoot first, ask questions later" policy, with little regard for the consequences following his actions. This has often left him in many hostile situations, although in the end, he always somehow comes out on top. Confronted at the very beginning of the game by Duvall, he is saved by Chinese secret agent Fong Ling who throws a grenade at Morpheus (regardless of Bruce's life), seriously wounding the terrorist. He later works with her in order to stop Duvall's plan of unleashing the virus, bringing the fight to an underwater Umbrella secret laboratory which they ultimately destroy as Bruce kills a greatly mutated Duvall. At first at odds with Fong Ling, she and Bruce become closer as the story progresses, particularly after he saves her from an attempt on her life by her own government through the use of satellites armed with lasers. At the end of the game, it is implied that Bruce and Fong will start a relationship.

    People's Republic of China
    MSS
    Fong Ling
    Voiced by (English): Claire O'Connor (Dead Aim)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Kae Araki (Namco × Capcom)
    A Chinese intelligence agent employed by the Ministry of State Security of the People's Republic of China, Fong is infamous for her cold and stoic demeanor. Upon learning of her brother's involvement in anti-government activism, Fong arrested him. Following his arrest, Fong's brother was swiftly executed, although she never questioned the actions of her boss and remained absolutely loyal, stopping at nothing to accomplish her objectives. She is sent by the Chinese government to the Umbrella-owned luxury liner Spencer Rain to stop former Umbrella scientist Morpheus Duvall's plans and retrieve the sample of the virus he stole from an Umbrella's lab in Paris. Initially apathetic towards the presence of a rival operative, Bruce McGivern, going so far as to throw a grenade at Duvall who was holding him at gunpoint, she allies with him in order to stop Duvall. At some point, the Chinese government betrays her and attempts to kill her through the use of satellites armed with lasers. But Bruce saves her. Though greatly shaken by this event, she decides to complete her mission and to keep working for her employers afterward. And from that moment on, she becomes closer to Bruce. After killing Duvall and destroying an Umbrella secret laboratory underwater, it is implied that Bruce and Fong will start a relationship.

    NGOs
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is neither a part of a recognized government nor a conventional for-profit business.

    TerraSave
    TerraSave is a non-governmental human rights organization introduced in Resident Evil: Degeneration.

    Moira Burton
    Voiced by (English): Marcella Lentz-Pope (Revelations 2)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Ayumi Fujimura (Revelations 2)
    Moira is the eldest daughter of STARS veteran, Barry Burton. In Resident Evil: Revelations 2, Moira and her TerraSave co-workers including Claire Redfield are captured and taken to an abandoned prison facility supervised by Alex Wesker. Moira is a secondary character in Claire's portion of the game. She refuses to use firearms after accidentally wounding her sister with a handgun as a child. Instead, Moira uses tools, such as crowbars, to break open boxes and to attack enemies. She is estranged from her father. Eventually while fighting a mutated Neil Fisher, who betrayed the Terra Save group, Moira overcomes her fear of using a gun in order to save Claire if the player selects this option, which is canon. Moira is separated from Claire and saved by Evgeny, a Russian man who later chooses death once his daughter is dead. Moira then returns to save her father and friends from Alex Wesker, who is now fully mutated. Alex, however, lives on through possessing to some degree Natalia, who had become Moira's adoptive sister.

    Neil Fisher
    Voiced by (English): Yuri Lowenthal (Revelations 2)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Eiji Hanawa (Revelations 2)
    Neil Fisher is a high-ranking member of TerraSave and senior officer of Claire Redfield. He was also involved with the organization's operations during the Terragrigia incident, where he met and looked after a young Natalia Korda. However, unknown to other TerraSave members, Neil was affiliated with the FBC, primarily its director Morgan Lansdale. After it was disbanded during the events of Resident Evil: Revelations, Neil plans to start another bioterrorist attack to justify the return of the FBC. To achieve this end, he contacts Alex Wesker and helps her organize the kidnapping of several members of TerraSave for experimentation with her T-Phobos virus. In return, he would receive a vial of Albert Wesker's Uroboros virus to start his bioterrorist attack. After helping Alex procure Natalia for the purposes of transferring her mind into the girl's body, she betrays Neil by injecting the virus into his body and sends him down to the lower levels of her tower, to fight Claire and Moira Burton. Mutating into a hulking beast, he is killed during their fight when shot at point-blank range in the head by either Claire or Moira (canonically the latter).

    Neo-Umbrella
    Carla Radames
    See also: Ada Wong
    Carla Radames is the primary antagonist of Resident Evil 6. She is the founder and leader of Neo-Umbrella, a terrorist organization that strives on destroying the current world order. Radames, a former government researcher, is the creator of the C-virus, a powerful mutagen capable of turning humans into capable and competent bio-organic weapons. Derek Simmons performs experiments on Carla which ultimately turn her into a clone of Ada Wong. While Carla possesses Ada's physical appearance and mannerisms, she still retains her original psyche. She also harbors a deep resentment towards Simmons, whom she believes stole her research and lifework. Radames personally oversees the bio-terror attacks in Europe, the United States, and China. She exacts revenge on Simmons by having her henchmen infect him with a potent dosage of the C-virus, which turns him into ravenous monster. She is fatally shot by a helicopter sent by the Family, but thanks to injecting herself with an enhanced C-virus, Radames mutated into a formless mass. She is eventually confronted and killed by Ada Wong.[43]

    Los Iluminados
    Osmund Saddler
    Voiced by: Michael Gough (RE4)
    Motion capture: Kenji Hata (RE4)
    Osmund Saddler (オズムンド・サドラー, Ozumundo Sadorā) is the main antagonist of Resident Evil 4.[44] He is the leader of Los Illuminados, the cult responsible for Ashley Graham's kidnapping.[45] Saddler plans on infecting Graham with a sample of Las Plagas, in hope that she will return home and infect higher-ranking members of the U.S. government.[46] Saddler then attempts to control them and seize control of the country, and then the world.[46] He uses samples of Las Plagas to infect and control villagers and even a local castellan Ramon Salazar (ラモン・サラザール) to perform his bidding. However, his plans are foiled by the combined efforts of Kennedy, Wong and Luis Sera. Kennedy, with the assistance of Wong, kills Saddler near the game's conclusion, and destroys his research and production complex.[47]

    Ramon Salazar
    Voiced by: Rene Mujica (voice actor) (RE4)
    Motion capture: Tsurugi-Dan (RE4)
    Ramon Salazar (voiced by Rene Mujica) is a secondary antagonist in Resident Evil 4. He is the castellan of the castle affiliated with Los Iluminados.[48] He comes from a noble family, who were responsible for sealing Las Plagas beneath the castle's grounds.[49] Years later, Saddler, a cultist who worships Las Plagas, persuaded Salazar to unearth the parasites, causing them to spread across the local area.[49] Salazar controls the Ganados and orders them to kill Kennedy and apprehend Ashley Graham.[50] He merges with his second Verdugo in a Queen Plaga to become a gigantic abomination in a desperate attempt to defeat Kennedy, but perishes during the ensuing fight.

    Bitores Mendez
    Voiced by: Jesse Corti (voice actor) (RE4)
    Motion capture: Kenji Hata (RE4)
    Bitorez Mendez is the chief of the unnamed Spanish village, taken over by Osmund Saddler and the Los Illuminados cult. He is given a Dominant Species of the Plaga Parasite, allowing him to command others infected with Las Plagas and granting him incredible strength. Mendez is confronted numerous times throughout the first two chapters of Resident Evil 4 by Leon Kennedy, during the latter's attempt to save the President's daughter from the village. In their last confrontation in a barn, Mendez is forced to mutate after being doused in gasoline and set on fire, eventually detaching the lower part of his body and using the rafters to traverse and attack Leon. He is finally killed by the agent and his glass eye is used to access Salazar's castle. Resident Evil Archives II state that Mendez used to be a Catholic Priest before being converted to the Los Illuminados cult.

    Jack Krauser
    Voiced by: Jim Ward (RE4, TDC, Mercenaries 3D)
    Motion capture: Ryouji Okamoto (RE4, in-game), Munenori Yuo (RE4, cutscenes)
    Jack Krauser (ジャック・クラウザー, Jakku Kurauzā) is a freelance mercenary hired to do Saddler's bidding.[51] Originally a U.S. government special forces operative, Krauser served with Leon Kennedy, before losing his job from his last operation with Kennedy from an arm injury[52] and later supposedly perishing in a helicopter crash.[53] Krauser is responsible for kidnapping Ashley, claiming he committed the act to gain Saddler's trust. He has little interest in Saddler's agenda, and only seeks to recover a sample of Las Plagas for Albert Wesker for the latter's plan to restore the then-defunct Umbrella Corporation, believing such would bring order and balance to the world.[54][55][56][57] In addition to being a skilled knife fighter and archer, Krauser possesses superhuman speed, stamina, strength, and gained the ability to transform his left arm into a giant mutated claw.[47] He confronts Kennedy twice in the game. After apparently dying during a fight with Kennedy, Krauser appears as a boss in the "Assignment: Ada" scenario, and is killed once and for all by Ada in the "Separate Ways" scenario.[47][58] Krauser is playable in Mercenaries mode. He uses his bow in combat and can also utilize his mutated arm as a melee weapon. The Darkside Chronicles provides backstory for Krauser as he is partnered with Leon to arrest a drug lord in South America. During their journey they discover the village has suffered an outbreak of the T-virus,[59] and encounter Manuela Hidalgo, who has been infected with the T-Veronica virus, Krauser also learns of Wesker and Umbrella's conspiracy. Before defeating the mutated drug lord, Krauser's arm is severely injured and he is forced to leave the military. He seeks out Wesker to recover from his injury and become stronger.[60]

    Baker Family
    The Baker Family are the main antagonists of Resident Evil 7: Biohazard.

    Jack Baker
    Voiced by (English): Jack Brand (RE7)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Kazuhiro Yamaji (RE7)
    Jack Baker is one of the primary antagonists of Resident Evil 7: Biohazard. He chases after the intruder Ethan Winters inside a plantation mansion, or the "Dulvey Haunted House" as it is also referred to. Jack is a middle-aged man and a member of the Baker family who are victims of Eveline, and have captured Ethan's wife, Mia. The Bakers were thought to have vanished from the local community in Dulvey, Louisiana.

    Not long after the game was announced, Jack became known for his various one-liners such as "Welcome to the family, son!" heard in the various demo footage.[61] Jack relentlessly pursues Ethan from area to area, being very strong and somehow appears to be nearly unstoppable. He uses a variety of weapons and can attack you even after being set ablaze when a car bursts into flames inside a garage. To prove to Ethan he is not human, he also takes his gun and seemingly dies after blowing his own head off, only to rise again and continue pursuing Ethan. Jack also murders a policeman who had come across Ethan after they entered the garage. During one such encounter, Ethan ultimately defeats Jack one last time after he has majorly mutated, but Jack later appears in a dream like scene as a normal man due to Ethan having used the serum to cure him. He still dies along with the rest of the Bakers, however, and is honored by Ethan when he says they were also victims of the tragedy that was Eveline. He returned as a major enemy in End of Zoe which is a downloadable content chapter that takes place after the main game. Jack (almost unrecognizable now) stalks his brother Joe while he tries to find a cure for Zoe. Jack is ultimately defeated by Joe and Joe saves Zoe.

    Marguerite Baker
    Voiced by (English): Sara Coates (RE7)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Maki Izawa (RE7)
    Marguerite Baker is a primary antagonist in Resident Evil 7: Biohazard and is a member of the mysterious Baker family from Dulvey, Louisiana. They were responsible for the deaths of a local camera crew, but were really doing all of this to outsiders because Eveline had taken control of them, and before their infection, the Bakers were just an ordinary family. Marguerite was first shown in the various footage that was unveiled during 2016, including a clip featuring the scene where her family have the main protagonist Ethan Winters seated at the dinner table. Marguerite was more prominently featured in the Lantern demo, following Mia, Ethan's wife. She can summon insects to swarm together and attack Ethan, but he defeats her nonetheless. When she follows Mia, Mia must hide rather than face her in a battle. Like her other family members, she spouts a lot of profanity.

    Lucas Baker
    Voiced by (English): Jesse Pimentel (RE7)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Setsuji Satō (RE7)
    Lucas Baker is a primary antagonist in Resident Evil 7: Biohazard and a member of the Baker family. According to Sewer Gators producer Andre Stickland, he was the "bad seed" of the family. Lucas and his family had been missing since 2014, but are encountered by the protagonist Ethan Winters whilst he searches their derelict house for his missing wife, Mia. Lucas later forces Clancy (a cameraman) and Ethan to navigate a series of areas filled with traps, and monsters, as he mocks their progress. Clancy is killed after engaging a trap, and Ethan watches a tape that reveals how his death occurred to ensure that he does not suffer a similar fate. Lucas survives the events because he is never faced in combat. He also appears in the downloadable content "Banned Footage" chapters, but these side quests predate the main story.[62] However, a new sub-chapter entitled Not a Hero is set after the main game. Lucas served as its main antagonist, being chased by Chris Redfield.[63] After losing three soldiers and traversing gas filled tunnels, Chris eventually located Lucas. After Chris shot him, Lucas mutated before being slain by Chris. Chris then destroyed the computers and returned to the base.

    Non-affiliated
    Alan Droney
    Voiced by (English): Kip Pardue (RE7)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Kiyomitsu Mizuuchi (RE7)
    Face model: Mark Hobart
    Alan Droney is an agent for the Connections. He and Mia Winters were tasked with transporting the Bio Organic Weapon Eveline. Eventually, Eveline infects the people on board, including Alan, turning most into mold. When he began to show symptoms of infection, he dispatched Mia to kill or recapture her. Shortly afterwards, Alan is killed by Eveline.

    Alex Wesker
    Voiced by (English): Mary Elizabeth McGlynn (Revelations 2)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Rica Fukami (Revelations 2)
    Motion capture: Elaine Hendrix (Revelations 2)[64]
    Face Model: Elaine Hendrix (Revelations 2)[64]
    Besides Albert Wesker, Alex is the only other known "Wesker" project to have survived and adapted successfully on her own. Both were viewed as being a form of superior breed of human by their master, Ozwell E. Spencer, but Spencer was betrayed by them both once they grew to understand the greatness of power. Alex was first mentioned in a file obtainable in Resident Evil 5, and is eventually revealed to be the main antagonist of Resident Evil: Revelations 2. It is she who captures the Terra Save workers including Claire Redfield with Moira Burton, and injects them with a virus and has her subjects wear wrist devices to monitor their fear levels as they explore a frightening facility, causing the subjects to mutate if their fear becomes too great. She is frequently spying on her subjects via CCTV. uses quotes by Franz Kafka and captures Natalia Korda, the little girl Barry Burton meets upon reaching the island Moira was stuck on. During some scenes, Alex is clearly seen in her mutated form as well, and controls the "Afflicted". Alex had captured Natalia to experiment on her, intending to transfer her own consciousness into Natalia's body. Regardless of the ending achieved by the player in Revelations 2, good or bad, Alex manages, possibly to different degrees, to transfer her mind into Natalia's body and take over it. In the bonus episode "Little Miss", which takes place before Barry's arrival to the island, players assume control of Natalia and her mysterious evil twin as they look for the toy bear Lottie. This reveals Alex had already started her experience and her mind was present in Natalia's subconscious as the "evil twin".

    Ark Thompson
    Voiced by: Patrick Harlan (Resident Evil: Survivor)
    Ark Thompson is an acquaintance of Leon S. Kennedy who was sent by him to Sheena Island to investigate the Umbrella's facilities there, where the company has its private township, soon after the Raccoon City incident in 1998. He ends up posing as Vincent Goldman, an Umbrella manager, but loses his memory after a helicopter crash. During the game, he is led to believe that he is Vincent Goldman and is mistakenly blamed for the T-virus outbreak on the island. As he investigates, he progressively gets his memories back and confronts the real Vincent Goldman. He eventually escapes the facility before its destruction aboard a helicopter along with Lott and Lily Klein, two children of Umbrella scientists whose parents died in the incident.

    Ashley Graham
    Voiced by: Carolyn Lawrence (RE4)
    Motion capture: Yukiko Saitani (RE4)
    Ashley Graham (アシュリー・グラハム, Ashurī Gurahamu) is the new U.S. President's daughter in Resident Evil 4.[65] A college student living in Massachusetts, Ashley is abducted by a mysterious cult while attempting to return to her home.[45] She is taken to a remote part of Spain and held captive in a village inhabited by humans infected with mind-controlling parasites. The cult's leader, Osmund Saddler, plans to infect her with Las Plagas, to carry out the cult's secret agenda.[46] She is rescued by Kennedy, and works alongside him to thwart the cult's plans and escape. In addition to being able to receive commands and perform simple tasks, Ashley briefly becomes a playable character for a portion of the game.

    GameDaily listed Ashley Graham as part of its "Babe of the Week: Hottest Blondes" feature, adding that they would give her the "pain in the neck" award.[66] In 2008, Cracked listed her as one of the 15 most annoying video game characters, claiming that in their opinion, "developers need to realize that no one likes to defend the weak and defenseless in video games",[67] but PC Games Hardware included her among the 112 most important female characters in games.[68] That same year, GamesRadar used her as an example of the "pure-hearted love interest", stating that this kind of character lacks personality,[69] and also listed her as one of the top seven most irritating video game characters, stating that while she is not completely useless, she is not very resourceful.[70]

    Ben Bertolucci
    Voiced by (English): Rod Wilson (RE2), Skip Stellrecht (The Darkside Chronicles)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Atsushi Imaruoka (REmake 2)
    Ben Bertolucci (ベン・ベルトリッチ, Ben Berutoritchi) is minor character in Resident Evil 2. A journalist, he investigates Chief Brian Irons and Umbrella during their attempts to cover up the Mansion Incident. Eventually discovering evidence linking him to Umbrella, he is arrested and held in the RPD holding cells. In the original game, Ben is approached by Leon S. Kennedy and Ada Wong on information he has uncovered on Umbrella and helps them escape the building. However, he is killed by William Birkin before he can be released from his cell. Before dying, he gives Leon evidence linking Irons to a coverup of the G-virus. In the game's remake, Ben's role is significantly reduced to a brief meeting with Leon. He offers his parking pass to escape the building in exchange for his release, but is killed by the Tyrant before Leon can decide. Opening his cell, Leon retrieves both the pass and a recording of him confronting Annette Birkin on Umbrella's actions and the creation of the G-virus. Ben also appears in The Darkside Chronicles, though he is killed off-screen by Birkin before he can meet Leon, Claire or Ada.

    Billy Coen
    Voiced by: David Webster (RE0), Steve Van Wormer (The Umbrella Chronicles)
    Billy Coen (ビリー・コーエン, Birī Kōen) is first mentioned in a police report filed by Rebecca Chambers that can be found in the Nintendo 64 version of Resident Evil 2, foreshadowing the events of the prequel, Resident Evil Zero. A former Second Lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps Force Reconnaissance, Billy is sentenced to death by a military court for massacring 23 people[71] in murky circumstances during a mission in Africa. Billy's flashbacks imply he is innocent and the victim of a cover-up.[72][73] He escapes en route to his execution and seeks refuge in the Ecliptic Express, a stranded train, where he meets Rebecca Chambers. The two form an alliance in order to survive, using their talents to discover the Umbrella Corporation’s secrets.[74] Both characters are monitored by James Marcus, who sends various creatures to subdue them. After revealing the details of his demise, Marcus mutates into the Queen Leech.[74] In the final battle sequence, Billy and Rebecca destroy the Queen Leech by exploiting its vulnerability to sunlight. Rebecca allows Billy to escape, believing his claims that he is innocent and telling the authorities that he subsequently perished in the Arklay Mountains after their encounter. Billy also appears in The Umbrella Chronicles.[74][75]

    Clancy Javis
    Voiced by (English): Tony Vogel (RE7)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Yu Seki (RE7)
    Clancy Javis is a playable character from Resident Evil 7: The Beginning Hour. He enters the Bakers' residence with Andre Stickland and Peter Walken to film an episode of Sewer Gators. He is briefly a playable character while filming Peter. Clancy then searches for Andre who wanders away from the group but is knocked unconscious after discovering Andre's corpse.[61][76] Later, Clancy was tied up and taken into a game room by Lucas who dares him to solve various puzzles in order to light the candle and put it on the cake. When Clancy removed the turner from the barrel, the oil leaks out. After various puzzles, he lights a birthday cake which suddenly exploded, causing him to be engulfed in flames, killing him in the process.[77]

    Clancy also appears in the Banned Footage DLC for the game, a collection of stories that take place before the events of the game. In "Nightmare", Clancy is forced to contend with seemingly endless waves of Molded throughout a night, eventually facing Jack in combat. In "Bedroom", he tries to escape the master bedroom of the house whilst being monitored by Marguerite. In "21", Clancy is forced to play a card game against another victim of the Bakers, Hoffman, by Lucas, eventually beating him and leading to Hoffman's death. His success leads to Lucas placing him in the Happy Birthday death trap.

    Daniel Cortini
    Daniel Cortini is a minor character in the Resident Evil 2 remake. The sheriff of Arklay county, he takes part holding back the T-virus outbreak in the Raccoon City area. Whilst investigating a gas station near the city, Daniel is killed by a zombie whilst after being distracted by the arrival of either Leon or Claire. He appears as a playable protagonist in The Ghost Survivors DLC chapter "No Way Out", which is unlockable after completing the other chapters. A non-canonical account, Daniel battles a large number of enemies in a gas station until he can be rescued.[78]

    Deborah Harper
    Voiced by (English): Kate Higgins (RE6)
    Motion capture: Lauren Kim (RE6)
    Deborah Harper is the younger sister of Helena Harper. In the past, Helena was known to be very protective towards Deborah, having wounded Deborah's abusive ex-boyfriend. In Resident Evil 6, the two sisters were held as hostages by Derek C. Simmons in the secret lab underneath the Tall Oaks Cathedral. Helena tried her best to keep a terrified Deborah calm and assures her. Helena offered herself to Simmons in exchange for her sister, but her pleas did nothing and Deborah was dragged away. Deborah was later taken to the catacombs of the cathedral, and was injected with C-Virus; however, as she showed no signs of mutation, Deborah was left to die. After Helena and Leon rescue Deborah, they soon arrive at the lower levels of the catacombs, where Deborah becomes very ill before bursting into flames; a goo then hardens into a cocoon around her. As the lower levels then begin to crumble, Deborah emerges with spider-like appendages on her back. Despite Helena's pleas not to harm her sister, Ada reminds her that Deborah has to be killed or else they will die. After the battle, Helena grabs Deborah as she slips and falls over a pit. She then begs for forgiveness, saying she will avenge her sister after she and Leon kill Simmons, and releases Deborah as she falls to her death into the darkness below. At the end of Leon and Helena's campaign, Helena visits Deborah's grave at a cemetery.

    Ethan Winters
    Voiced by (English): Todd Soley (RE7)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Hidenobu Kiuchi (RE7)
    Ethan is the protagonist of the game Resident Evil 7: Biohazard. Ethan is an American civilian looking for his missing wife, Mia. Mia went missing over 3 years ago after she sent a video message to Ethan, talking about how much she was looking forward to coming home. Ethan then suddenly receives a disturbing video message and an email from Mia, so he tells an unknown friend that he is heading out to search for her in Dulvey, Louisiana. This leads him to a derelict plantation mansion, that also happens to be the home of the deranged Baker family, who have been driven insane due to being infected with the Mold from Eveline.

    After viewing a tape he finds regarding a camera crew being attacked in the same house, he soon finds his wife in a hidden area lying in a cell, but Mia acts peculiar as they look for a way out, and disappears. She then attacks Ethan with a kitchen knife. The ensuing chaos leads to Mia throwing Ethan through a wall. However, he manages to "kill" her using an ax and pistol. Eventually, she gets up, corners Ethan, and pins him to the wall by his hand with a screwdriver, then cuts off Ethan's pinned hand. Ethan knocks Mia out, and then suddenly, a man attacks Ethan and knocks him out, taking both Ethan and Mia back inside the house. Ethan's severed hand is reattached by a woman named Zoe (the only sane member of the Baker family) and then later, Ethan manages to become untied at the dinner table due to a police officer ringing a telephone, which distracted the Bakers, who were planning to torture him for refusing to eat with them. Ethan manages to fully mend his hand but learns that the Bakers cannot be "killed" very easily.

    Mia, as it turns out, is also infected by Eveline, as is Zoe, and therefore not dead. Although Mia and Zoe have to find a way to escape as well. However, Zoe explains that they need to be cured first using a serum as they cannot leave until this is fulfilled. Ethan also encounters other abnormal monsters created by Eveline, such as the creatures called the Molded. But escaping the premises is made extremely difficult, as the Bakers relentlessly pursue him, and Ethan has to protect himself using whatever means he can find, so he can ultimately overcome each family member.

    Ethan attempts to get in contact with a military group for his rescue while learning more about Eveline as an "E-Series" Bioweapon. After Ethan is assisted by the military group via chopper and finally puts a stop to Eveline, he and Mia are rescued by Chris Redfield, who is working with the newly reformed Umbrella Corporation. At the conclusion of the End of Zoe sub-chapter, Ethan talks to Zoe by phone and she finds out he kept his promise to send help, and Zoe is cured.

    Evgeny Rebic
    Voiced by (English): Walter Rego (Revelations 2)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Ben Hiura (Revelations 2)
    Rebic is an old Russian man Claire and Moira meet on the island they are trapped on in Resident Evil: Revelations 2. He is a miner who is not happy that they are potentially alerting the afflicted to his hideout; Moira ends up doing this by mistake while later spending time with him after her near death experience that resulted in her being away from Claire for 6 months. Although Evegeny is just a bit part character in the main game, he is the co-op partner of Moira in "The Struggle" bonus episode, and uses a rifle to shoot wild animals (for food) and kill enemies. He rescued Moira beneath all the debris that fell on her, but does not call her by that name afterwards, and he teaches her to hunt for herself, while they are putting up with one another's whining. He later learns his missing daughter named Irina is already dead and feeling unwell, Evgeny chooses to die in the underground, with Evgeny and Moira revealing their names to each other just before he passes. His body is eventually found by Barry and Natalia.

    Eveline
    Voiced by (English): Patricia McNeely (RE7 (Old Woman)), Paula Rhodes (RE7 (Young))
    Voiced by (Japanese): Yuri Tabata (RE7 (Old Woman)), Sumire Morohoshi (RE7 (Young))
    Eveline is the main antagonist of Resident Evil 7: Biohazard. Considered as an "E-Class" BOW codenamed "E-001", Eveline is a genetically enhanced human created by a mysterious group called "The Connections" with the help from H.C.F (one of the companies owned by Albert Wesker) by fusing a Progenitor-enhanced fungus called Mutamycete into her genome during embryonic stage. Designed for the company's NEXBAS (Next-generation experimental battlefield superiority) initiative, it was designed to blend in with the population, neutralizing combatants without direct contact and converting enemies into allies. Unfortunately the project folded due to its inhumane causes and that it was hard to control unlike other BOWs. Of all the projects done by the company, Eveline is the first successful prototype. She infects people using mold and fungus, allowing her to create a legion of people for her "family" to command and convert them into the "Molded". Due to the bioweapon's destructive abilities in mind control, it was sought after by rival companies, which lead to Mia Winters and Alan Droney to a bioweapon lab within a cargo ship. But when a hurricane struck the ship, Eveline infected Alan, and turned the crew into the Molded. Mia has no choice but to kill the Molded. Eveline killed Alan and infected Mia before the ship exploded.

    They were both later found by the Bakers who took them in. Eveline infected the Baker Family within the month, on which put them under their control and give them abilities. 2 years after, Eveline's mind and body are deteriorating rapidly due to lack of her medication, making her demand the Bakers to "add" more people to her family by kidnapping or killing them. Zoe is the only one not affected by Eveline's mind control while Lucas pretends to work with his family knowing she is a threat.

    After Ethan arrived at the Baker Family residence, he was helped by Zoe on finding Mia and discovering more about Eveline. When he finally knew her origins, he used the equipment in the lab deep in the Salt Mines to develop a Necrotoxin using Eveline's DNA, which was capable of killing her. He succeeds on injecting it to her revealing that Eveline is actually an old woman, but in the process of her mutating into a giant grotesque form as her powers go haywire and turn on her due to the toxin. With the help from the Umbrella Corporation, Ethan succeeded on fully killing her before being rescued.

    Jake Muller
    Voiced by (English): Troy Baker (RE6)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Daisuke Namikawa (RE6)
    Motion capture: Troy Baker, Daniel Southworth (stunt double)
    Jake Muller is the son of the Albert Wesker, a eugenicist, virologist and bioterrorist, who formerly worked for Umbrella. It is believed that Wesker was not aware of his sons existence, as Jake's Mother left shortly after being impregnated by him. Jake, later works as a freelance mercenary in order to support his mother, whom dies of an unknown chronic disease shortly after Jake receives money for her treatment. Jake was caught up in an act of bioterrorism while operating in anti-government operations in the fictional Eastern European republic of Edonia. His mercenary comrades are infected with the C-virus, but Jake's specialized blood resists the infection. Soon after, he meets US government agent Sherry Birkin – whose father, William Birkin, was coincidentally Albert's research partner. Sherry and Jake take part in the subsequent battle between the Bioterrorism Security Assessment Alliance and the mutated mercenaries.[79] With his blood resistant to the downside-effects of mutagenic viruses like his father, Jake also inherited several of his father's signature abilities such as increased strength, speed, healing, and advanced combat skills. He demands a large sum of money from the BSAA, in order to sample a pint of his blood to be synthesize for vaccination to combat the C-virus. He and Sherry are captured by Carla Radames, a doppelgänger of Ada Wong, and held captive in Lanshiang, China. They escape during the C-virus outbreak in the city six months later. Over the course of the story of RE6, Jake comes to terms with both the knowledge of his father's actions and of his death at the hands of Chris Redfield three years earlier. After the ordeal, Jake starts a new life fighting BOWs in an underdeveloped country with his real identity covered up by the BSAA.

    Joe Baker
    Voiced by (English): Gage Maverik (RE7)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Kōsei Hirota (RE7)
    Joe Baker is the main protagonist in the End of Zoe downloadable content chapter, for Resident Evil 7: Biohazard.[80] The brother of Jack Baker, he lives in the nearby swamplands near the Baker estate, though is isolated from the rest of the family and unaffected by Eveline's control. During the chapter, Joe discovers his niece, Zoe, shortly after the events of the main game and tries to find a cure to free her from Eveline's influence. To do so, he battles against the remnants of the molded creatures created by the Bakers and a mysterious creature chasing after them, later revealed to be a resurrected Jack. Joe ultimately kills his brother and is able to cure Zoe, after which they are found and extracted by the Umbrella Corps. Although he can use firearms, Joe mostly fights with his bare hands, though later acquires an Umbrella Corps glove to increase his strength prior to his final battle with Jack.

    Katherine Warren
    Katherine Warren is the daughter of Raccoon City's Mayor, Michael Warren. Left behind in Raccoon City by her father, she is left in the care of Chief Brian Irons. Driven insane by the outbreak, Irons instead murders Katherine, planning to stuff her body and keep it as part of his taxidermy collection. Warren's body appears in both versions of Resident Evil 2 and its retelling The Darkside Chronicles. She appears in the remake's Ghost Survivors DLC story "Runaway", which takes place outside of the main series canon.[81]

    Lisa Trevor
    Lisa Trevor (リサ・トレヴァー, Risa Torevā) is a character and enemy in the remake of Resident Evil and The Umbrella Chronicles.[82] Lisa Trevor is the daughter of George Trevor, the architect behind Ozwell Spencer's Arklay Mansion and the Queen Zenobia cruiser, and his wife Jessica. Following the completion of the mansion's construction, Spencer invites the family to stay there, but betrays George by kidnapping Jessica and Lisa and uses them as human test subjects for genetic experimentation. George is also forced to try to escape the mansion, eventually getting lost and dying of malnutrition.[83] Lisa undergoes a series painful experiments, including receiving the Progenitor virus, while her mother is secretly murdered.[84] Lisa emerges with a grotesque and twisted physical appearance, but gains enhanced strength and nigh-invincibility. Further experimentation on Lisa allows Umbrella's top scientists, William Birkin and Albert Wesker, to develop the G-virus. Lisa is then executed and buried, but she survives and hides in the Arklay forest. She encounters STARS operatives during the events of Resident Evil before ultimately finding her mother's corpse, granting her some closure. Lisa makes her final appearance in The Umbrella Chronicles, where she is defeated by Wesker and left to die as the Arklay mansion and research facility self-destruct.[85]

    In 2012, IGN ranked as the ninth best boss in the series, adding, "Not only can her wails be heard throughout the game, she effectively can’t be killed – only deterred. Few things are scarier than that, making her one of the more memorable and entrenched characters in the series."[30]

    Luis Sera
    Voiced by: Rino Romano (RE4)
    Motion capture: Keiichi Wada (RE4)
    Luis Sera (ルイス・セラ, Ruisu Sera) is a Spanish investigator, who tries to assist Kennedy and Ada Wong in their efforts against Los Illuminados.[86] He is extremely familiar with the village where the game is set and formerly worked with Osmund Saddler to research and develop the cult's mind-controlling parasites.[87] After realizing Saddler intends to use the parasites for malicious purposes, he attempts to sabotage the cult's mission. Sera meets Kennedy after both of the men are captured by villagers.[47] He introduces himself as a former policeman from Madrid, who became dissatisfied with his job.[88] It is later revealed in the game that Sera was one of the top researchers in finding Las Plagas. He considered the resulting outbreak to be his fault and attempted to eliminate it, aiding Leon. He is ultimately killed by Saddler before he can present him with a sample of Las Plagas.[47][89]

    Mia Winters
    Voiced by (English): Katie O'Hagan (RE7)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Akari Higuchi (RE7)
    Face model: Savannah Daniels
    Mia is the spouse of Ethan Winters, the main character in Resident Evil 7: Biohazard. A member of an unnamed organization, possibly a former rival of Umbrella, Mia was tasked with escorting a bio-weapon called Eveline to another facility. However, the tanker is attacked and crashes in a Louisianan swamp. Found by the Baker family, Eveline infects them, planning to start a family of its own, hence the reason Mia and the Bakers were its earliest known victims. However, Mia also briefly serves as an antagonist due to being infected by Eveline, causing her to attack her husband shortly after he found her in a holding cell beneath the house. Mia is seemingly "killed" by her husband in self-defense after having an axe plunged into her neck, but despite this, she isn't truly dead because of Eveline.

    Both Mia and Ethan are taken by Jack Baker, and Mia recovers off screen. From that point on, Mia works with a woman called Zoe (who is revealed to be a Baker) and Ethan tries to save them by receiving hints from Zoe when she telephones him, while Ethan is having to deal with constant attacks perpetrated by the other Bakers. In some parts of the game, Mia is playable too, but sometimes she has to hide rather than confront enemies. After using a cure created by Zoe to kill Jack, Ethan must use the remaining vial to save either Mia or Zoe. Depending on a choice made by the player, Ethan can either cure Mia and attempt to escape with her, or choose Zoe, leaving her behind. After Ethan and the person he chose to save is attacked, the player once again takes control of Mia, searching the tanker for him. After freeing him, Mia will start to become possessed by Eveline again. Depending on the player's earlier decision, Mia will separate herself from Ethan to save him or allow Eveline to take control of her, forcing Ethan to kill her. If the former plays out, she will be recovered by Umbrella Corps mercenaries, reuniting with Ethan as the game ends.

    Natalia Korda
    Voiced by (English): Gabriella Pastore (Revelations 2)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Aoi Yūki (Revelations 2)
    A young girl who is a playable character in Resident Evil: Revelations 2. Natalia accompanies Barry Burton immediately when he arrives on an island to search for his missing daughter, Moira. Natalia explains that she is an orphan due to the death of her parents. Natalia can find items that are hidden, detect the presence of invisible or off-screen enemies (indicated by a glowing effect) and go through small passageways to reach otherwise unreachable areas. Since Natalia cannot use any firearms, she can pick up bricks to throw at any monsters, but often has to evade the monsters.

    Alex Wesker targets Natalia throughout the course of the plot in order to mind transfer herself into her, believing she is not "true" like she is. Alex (when in a grotesque form near the climax of the game), causes Natalia's fear to reach its highest on her wrist bracelet, but it is not explained what happens to Natalia. In a prequel segment, Dark Natalia joined Natalia to help find "Lottie", Natalia's beloved teddy bear, and she then begins her association with Barry, now having the ability to see any monsters that Barry cannot always notice. In the true ending, it was revealed prior to Alex mutating into her third and final form that she was able to transfer her mind into Natalia's body up until the young girl's body had been fully taken over by Alex, in 2013. Barry adopts Natalia after Alex is killed, but she is seen reading a piece by Franz Kafka then smiling, so Alex succeeded to some degree.

    Robert Kendo
    Voiced by (English): Gary Krawford (RE2), Jason C. Miller (DC)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Hideki Tanaka (REmake 2)
    Robert Kendo is the owner of a gun store in Raccoon City. He and his brother Joseph are responsible for creating the Samurai Edge pistols used by S.T.A.R.S. members. In the original Resident Evil 2, he briefly appears in the opening of Scenario A, allowing the player to stay in his gunshop for protection. However, zombies soon break in and devour Kendo, leaving a weapon for the player to pick up. In the remake, Robert confronts Leon S. Kennedy and Ada Wong as they attempt to pass through the shop to reach the sewers. It's also revealed he has a daughter, Emma, who he tries to protect from the outbreak. However, she is infected and Robert is forced to kill her. Kendo also appears in the game's The Ghost Survivors DLC as the player character in "No Time to Mourn". A non-canonical scenario, it follows him as he attempts to escape Raccoon City.[90][91] He also appears in The Darkside Chronicles, though is killed offscreen before he encounters either Leon or Claire.

    Steve Burnside
    Voiced by: Bill Houston (Code Veronica), Sam Riegel (The Darkside Chronicles)
    Steve Burnside (スティーブ・バーンサイド, Sutību Bānsaido) is Claire Redfield's partner in the game Resident Evil Code: Veronica. Steve was imprisoned in the Rockfort Island's facility alongside his father, a former Umbrella employee. He escapes from his cell during the viral outbreak. At first, Steve is hesitant to trust Claire and only cooperates with her reluctantly, but later becomes more open and attached to her after he is forced to kill his own father, who has become a zombie during the outbreak. Steve and Claire eventually end up in Umbrella's Antarctic Facility, where he is captured by Alexia and used as a test subject for the T-Veronica virus. Claire meets a chained Steve, who mutates into a monster and attacks Claire; in this form, he is nearly invulnerable to damage, and wields a giant, ceremonial axe. While running from Steve, Claire is attacked by one of Alexia's tentacles. Steve, seeing this, regains control of his mind and cuts the tentacle apart, freeing Claire. In retaliation, Alexia strikes him with one of the tentacles, inflicting a mortal wound. His failing body finally rejects the mutation, and he changes back. He dies in Claire's arms, just after professing his love to her. He was later taken by Albert Wesker due to the T-Veronica virus in his body, and also hinted that he might come back to life. In The Darkside Chronicles it is revealed that Wesker contacted the drug baron Javier Hidalgo and took a sample of T-Veronica from Steve's corpse in order to sell the virus for Hidalgo's ailing daughter, Manuela.

    Zoe Baker
    Voiced by (English): Giselle Gilbert (RE7)
    Voiced by (Japanese): Yū Kobayashi (RE7)
    Face model: Ananda Jacobs (RE7)[92]
    Zoe is the youngest member of the Baker family in Resident Evil 7: Biohazard set in 2017, and despite being infected by Eveline like the rest of her family, Zoe is somewhat normal, and serves as a supporting character. Zoe gets in contact with Ethan Winters by telephone several times, asking Ethan if "Daddy" gave him a hard time, as well as giving him tips on how to advance through the area. She was also the person who attached Ethan's severed hand back on after his wife Mia had cut it off, when she temporarily turned crazy. Working alongside of Mia thereafter, Zoe explains to Ethan that due to being infected, a serum needs to be given to each of them before they can escape too. Unfortunately, Ethan has to use one of the two vials to stop the heavily mutated Jack Baker when he returned yet again to try to finish off Ethan, leaving only one dosage remaining. The player can then choose to cure either Mia or Zoe, leading to an alternate story playing out: If Mia is selected, Zoe stays behind to die with the rest of her family, displaying anger over the fact that she felt she never had a future. It is unknown if she is alive during this path, but she is seen during Ethan and Jack's conversation scene. If Zoe is chosen to be cured, she and Ethan try to escape. However, they are both attacked by Eveline, during which Zoe is engulfed by her, killing her.

    In the Daughters downloadable content sub-chapter, players control Zoe Baker[93] just as her father rescues Mia and Eveline out in the swamp. Jack brings Eveline into their home during stormy weather to rest up in Lucas' bedroom, but as Zoe is about to change her wet clothes, Eveline looks up, saying, "They're mine now!" and then runs off, laughing maniacally. The power goes out at the same time. Eveline has begun converting the Bakers to her cause, as Zoe finds her mother has gone crazy and attempts to attack her. Jack tries to hold off Marguerite and tells Zoe to get rope from the garage, but by the time she comes back upstairs with it, Jack has already turned, trying to drown Marguerite in the bathtub, and Zoe has to escape through the recreation room as he gives chase. She also witnesses her father dragging Lucas along a hallway. This canonical prequel chapter is strategy based, as Zoe must flee from rather than fight her parents.[94] There's two possible endings: Zoe can either enter the trailer after finding out the passcode number from the attic to learn of the location of a key item, and finds Mia in her trailer, as well as an important note she wrote, or she can use the car keys given to her by her mother, which results in a poor ending due to the player choosing the "wrong path" for Zoe.[95]

    Her uncle Joe finds Zoe and two Umbrella operatives who claim they are trying to save her. He takes one hostage, but he later gets killed by Jack. Joe fist fights his way through a marsh to locate a cure. He injects Zoe with some serum he took off a dead soldier, but it only partially heals her. Out in the swamp, he has to get the other half, and ultimately kill his brother, the very much alive, but horribly mutated Jack. Zoe is eventually completely cured after Jack is killed once and for all, and then Ethan contacts her, to reveal he kept his promise to send her help.[96]
    [Private]-GSIV:Nyatherra: "Until this moment i forgot that i changed your name to Biff Muffbanger on Lnet"
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  7. #7
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    That's the virus you gotta be careful of.

  8. #8

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    Quote Originally Posted by Some Rogue View Post


    That's the virus you gotta be careful of.
    Protect ya respiratory system.
    Quote Originally Posted by Parkbandit View Post
    Methais isn't even on my level bitch.

  9. #9

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    Around 70 passengers booked on a China Southern Airlines flight from Nagoya, Japan to Shanghai refused to get on the plane when they found out 16 passengers from Wuhan, China were getting on the same plane. Worried that the Wuhan passengers could be infected with the new coronavirus – which has now killed 106 people and infected more than 4,500 people (but those numbers will will certainly climb within the next 24 hours, as they've been doing since the epidemic started last month) – the fearful passengers became angry and hostile. It took five hours for the airline to convince them to board the plane.

    More...

    The question is why did the airline convince them to get on the plane? Why?

  10. #10

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    Quote Originally Posted by ClydeR View Post
    The question is why did the airline convince them to get on the plane? Why?
    Because you’re stupid.
    [Private]-GSIV:Nyatherra: "Until this moment i forgot that i changed your name to Biff Muffbanger on Lnet"
    Quote Originally Posted by Back
    I am a retard. I'm disabled. I'm poor. I'm black. I'm gay. I'm transgender. I'm a woman.
    Quote Originally Posted by Back View Post
    Remember, I'm a tiny dick pussy.



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