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Thread: Bro Mode, listing

  1. Default Bro Mode, listing

    Bro Methais is starting to contribuate too much, I cannot keep track.

    So far, we have

    Fortybro for fortybox

    Dalabro fro dalabroc

    We have Flimbro for Flimbo

    Bro-Nidal for Nidal

    The Dantax Bro for Dantax

    Methabro for Methais

    Ardybro for Ardwen

    Exadminbro for Alastir

    Yakubro for Yakushi

    Brovia for Avaia
    Last edited by Murrandii; 05-22-2019 at 01:39 PM.
    Ardwen the submitive: [LNet]-GSIV:Ardwen: "not like I was given a choice to opt out of bro mode, bro"

  2. Default

    reserved
    Ardwen the submitive: [LNet]-GSIV:Ardwen: "not like I was given a choice to opt out of bro mode, bro"

  3. #3

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by Murrandii View Post
    reserved
    For rope? Seems like a thread thats gonna discuss a lot of rope.


    Page semi-protected
    Rope
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigationJump to search
    For other uses, see Rope (disambiguation).

    A coil of rope
    A rope is a group of yarns, plies, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than similarly constructed cord, string, and twine.


    Contents
    1 Construction
    2 Size measurement
    3 Usage
    3.1 Rock climbing ropes
    3.2 Aerial rope
    4 History
    5 Styles of rope construction
    5.1 Laid or twisted rope
    5.2 Braided rope
    5.3 Other types
    6 Gallery of µCT/micro-CT images and animations
    6.1 2D images / sections
    6.2 2D flight-throughs/sections
    6.3 3D renderings
    6.4 3D flight-throughs/sections
    7 Safe and proper rope handling
    8 Line
    9 See also
    10 References
    11 Sources
    12 Further reading
    13 External links
    Construction


    Three-strand twisted natural fiber rope
    Rope may be constructed of any long, stringy, fibrous material, but generally is constructed of certain natural or synthetic fibres.[1] [2][3] Synthetic fibre ropes are significantly stronger than their natural fibre counterparts, they have a higher tensile strength, they are more resistant to rotting than ropes created from natural fibers, and can be made to float on water.[4] But synthetic rope also possess certain disadvantages, including slipperiness, and some can be damaged more easily by UV light.[5]

    Common natural fibres for rope are manila hemp, hemp, linen, cotton, coir, jute, straw, and sisal. Synthetic fibres in use for rope-making include polypropylene, nylon, polyesters (e.g. PET, LCP, Vectran), polyethylene (e.g. Dyneema and Spectra), Aramids (e.g. Twaron, Technora and Kevlar) and acrylics (e.g. Dralon). Some ropes are constructed of mixtures of several fibres or use co-polymer fibres. Wire rope is made of steel or other metal alloys. Ropes have been constructed of other fibrous materials such as silk, wool, and hair, but such ropes are not generally available. Rayon is a regenerated fibre used to make decorative rope.

    The twist of the strands in a twisted or braided rope serves not only to keep a rope together, but enables the rope to more evenly distribute tension among the individual strands. Without any twist in the rope, the shortest strand(s) would always be supporting a much higher proportion of the total load.

    Size measurement
    The long history of rope means that many systems have been used to state the size of a rope. In systems that use the "inch" (British Imperial and United States Customary Measure), large ropes over 1 inch (2.5 cm) diameter such as are used on ships are measured by their circumference in inches; smaller ropes have a nominal diameter based on the circumference divided by three (rounded-down value for pi). In metric systems of measurement, nominal diameter is given in millimetres. The current preferred international standard for rope sizes is to give the mass per unit length, in kilograms per metre. However, even sources otherwise using metric units may still give a "rope number" for large ropes, which is the circumference in inches.[6]

    Usage

    Mooring and rope
    Rope is of paramount importance in fields as diverse as construction, seafaring, exploration, sports, theatre, and communications, and has been used since prehistoric times.[7] To fasten rope, many types of knots have been invented for countless uses.[8] Pulleys redirect the pulling force to another direction, and can create mechanical advantage so that multiple strands of rope share a load and multiply the force applied to the end. Winches and capstans are machines designed to pull ropes.

    Rock climbing ropes

    Dynamic Kernmantle rock climbing rope with its braided sheath cut to expose the twisted core yarns and core yarn plies.

    Section through Kernmantle rope
    The modern sport of rock climbing uses so-called "dynamic" rope, which stretches under load in an elastic manner to absorb the energy required to arrest a person in free fall without generating forces high enough to injure them. Such ropes normally use a kernmantle construction, as described below. "Static" ropes, used for example in caving, rappelling, and rescue applications, are designed for minimal stretch; they are not designed to arrest free falls. The UIAA, in concert with the CEN, sets climbing-rope standards and oversees testing. Any rope bearing a GUIANA or CE certification tag is suitable for climbing. Despite the hundreds of thousands of falls climbers suffer every year, there are few recorded instances of a climbing rope breaking in a fall; the cases that do are often attributable to previous damage to, or contamination of, the rope. Climbing ropes, however, do cut easily when under load. Keeping them away from sharp rock edges is imperative.

    Rock climbing ropes come with either a designation for single, double or twin use. A single rope is the most common and it is intended to be used by itself, as a single strand. Single ropes range in thickness from roughly 9 mm to 11 mm. Smaller ropes are lighter, but wear out faster. Double ropes are thinner ropes, usually 9 mm and under, and are intended for use as a pair. These ropes offer a greater margin or security against cutting, since it is unlikely that both ropes will be cut, but they complicate belaying and leading. Double ropes are usually reserved for ice and mixed climbing, where there is need for two ropes to rappel or abseil. They are also popular among traditional climbers, and particularly in the UK, due to the ability to clip each rope into alternating pieces of protection; allowing the ropes to stay straighter and hence reduce rope drag. Twin ropes are not to be confused with doubles. When using twin ropes, both ropes are clipped into the same piece of protection, treating the two as a single strand. This would be favourable in a situation where there was a high chance of a rope being cut. However new lighter-weight ropes with greater safety have virtually replaced this type of rope.

    The butterfly coil is a method of carrying a rope used by climbers where the rope remains attached to the climber and ready to be uncoiled at short notice. Another method of carrying a rope is the alpine coil.

    Aerial rope
    Rope is also an aerial acrobatics circus skill, where a performer makes artistic figures on a vertical suspended rope. Tricks performed on the rope are, for example, drops, rolls and hangs. They must also be strong.[9] See also Corde lisse.

    History

    Ancient Egyptians were the first to document tools for ropemaking
    The use of ropes for hunting, pulling, fastening, attaching, carrying, lifting, and climbing dates back to prehistoric times. It is likely that the earliest "ropes" were naturally occurring lengths of plant fibre, such as vines, followed soon by the first attempts at twisting and braiding these strands together to form the first proper ropes in the modern sense of the word. Impressions of cordage found on fired clay provide evidence of string and rope-making technology in Europe dating back 28,000 years.[10] Fossilized fragments of "probably two-ply laid rope of about 7 mm diameter" were found in one of the caves at Lascaux, dating to approximately 15,000 BC.[11]

    The ancient Egyptians were probably the first civilization to develop special tools to make rope. Egyptian rope dates back to 4000 to 3500 B.C. and was generally made of water reed fibres.[12] Other rope in antiquity was made from the fibres of date palms, flax, grass, papyrus, leather, or animal hair. The use of such ropes pulled by thousands of workers allowed the Egyptians to move the heavy stones required to build their monuments. Starting from approximately 2800 B.C., rope made of hemp fibres was in use in China. Rope and the craft of rope making spread throughout Asia, India, and Europe over the next several thousand years.

    In the Middle Ages (from the 13th to the 18th centuries), from the British Isles to Italy, ropes were constructed in ropewalks, very long buildings where strands the full length of the rope were spread out and then laid up or twisted together to form the rope. The cable length was thus set by the length of the available rope walk. This is related to the unit of length termed cable length. This allowed for long ropes of up to 300 yards long or longer to be made. These long ropes were necessary in shipping as short ropes would require splicing to make them long enough to use for sheets and halyards. The strongest form of splicing is the short splice, which doubles the cross-sectional area of the rope at the area of the splice, which would cause problems in running the line through pulleys. Any splices narrow enough to maintain smooth running would be less able to support the required weight.[citation needed]

    Leonardo da Vinci drew sketches of a concept for a ropemaking machine, but it was never built. Nevertheless, remarkable feats of construction were accomplished without advanced technology: In 1586, Domenico Fontana erected the 327 ton obelisk on Rome's Saint Peter's Square with a concerted effort of 900 men, 75 horses, and countless pulleys and meters of rope. By the late 18th century several working machines had been built and patented.

    Some rope is still made from natural fibres, such as coir and sisal, despite the dominance of synthetic fibres such as nylon and polypropylene, which have become increasingly popular since the 1950s.


    A ropemaker at work, c. 1425



    A German ropemaker, around 1470 AD



    Public demonstration of historical ropemaking technique



    A piece of preserved rope found on board the 16th century carrack Mary Rose



    A ropewalk in Karlskrona, Sweden

    Styles of rope construction
    Laid or twisted rope

    Illustration of the S and Z naming convention
    Laid rope, also called twisted rope, is historically the prevalent form of rope, at least in modern Western history. Common twisted rope generally consists of three strands and is normally right-laid, or given a final right-handed twist. The ISO 2 standard uses the uppercase letters S and Z to indicate the two possible directions of twist, as suggested by the direction of slant of the central portions of these two letters. The handedness of the twist is the direction of the twists as they progress away from an observer. Thus Z-twist rope is said to be right-handed, and S-twist to be left-handed.

    Twisted ropes are built up in three steps. First, fibres are gathered and spun into yarns. A number of these yarns are then formed into strands by twisting. The strands are then twisted together to lay the rope. The twist of the yarn is opposite to that of the strand, and that in turn is opposite to that of the rope. It is this counter-twist, introduced with each successive operation, which holds the final rope together as a stable, unified object.[13]


    Rope making using the twisted rope method on a 1928 Metters Rope Making Machine
    Traditionally, a three strand laid rope is called a plain- or hawser-laid, a four strand rope is called shroud-laid, and a larger rope formed by counter-twisting three or more multi-strand ropes together is called cable-laid.[14] Cable-laid rope is sometimes clamped to maintain a tight counter-twist rendering the resulting cable virtually waterproof. Without this feature, deep water sailing (before the advent of steel chains and other lines) was largely impossible, as any appreciable length of rope for anchoring or ship to ship transfers, would become too waterlogged – and therefore too heavy – to lift, even with the aid of a capstan or windlass.

    One property of laid rope is partial untwisting when used.[15] This can cause spinning of suspended loads, or stretching, kinking, or hockling of the rope itself. An additional drawback of twisted construction is that every fibre is exposed to abrasion numerous times along the length of the rope. This means that the rope can degrade to numerous inch-long fibre fragments, which is not easily detected visually.[citation needed]

    Twisted ropes have a preferred direction for coiling. Normal right-laid rope should be coiled clockwise, to prevent kinking. Coiling this way imparts a twist to the rope. Rope of this type must be bound at its ends by some means to prevent untwisting.

    Braided rope

    A rope braiding machine at the Arbetets Museum (Museum of Work) in Norrköping, Sweden
    While rope may be made from three or more strands,[16] modern braided rope consists of a braided (tubular) jacket over strands of fiber (these may also be braided). Some forms of braided rope with untwisted cores have a particular advantage; they do not impart an additional twisting force when they are stressed. The lack of added twisting forces is an advantage when a load is freely suspended, as when a rope is used for rappelling or to suspend an arborist. Other specialized cores reduce the shock from arresting a fall when used as a part of a personal or group safety system.

    Braided ropes are generally made from nylon, polyester, polypropylene or high performance fibers such as high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) and aramid. Nylon is chosen for its strength and elastic stretch properties. However, nylon absorbs water and is 10–15% weaker when wet. Polyester is about 90% as strong as nylon but stretches less under load and is not affected by water. It has somewhat better UV resistance, and is more abrasion resistant. Polypropylene is preferred for low cost and light weight (it floats on water) but it has limited resistance to ultraviolet light, is susceptible to friction and has a poor heat resistance.[17][18][19]

    Braided ropes (and objects like garden hoses, fibre optic or coaxial cables, etc.) that have no lay (or inherent twist) uncoil better if each alternate loop is twisted in the opposite direction, such as in figure-eight coils, where the twist reverses regularly and essentially cancels out.

    Single braid consists of an even number of strands, eight or twelve being typical, braided into a circular pattern with half of the strands going clockwise and the other half going anticlockwise. The strands can interlock with either twill or plain weave. The central void may be large or small; in the former case the term hollow braid is sometimes preferred.

    Double braid, also called braid on braid, consists of an inner braid filling the central void in an outer braid, that may be of the same or different material. Often the inner braid fibre is chosen for strength while the outer braid fibre is chosen for abrasion resistance.

    In solid braid, the strands all travel the same direction, clockwise or anticlockwise, and alternate between forming the outside of the rope and the interior of the rope. This construction is popular for general purpose utility rope but rare in specialized high performance line.

    Kernmantle rope has a core (kern) of long twisted fibres in the center, with a braided outer sheath or mantle of woven fibres. The kern provides most of the strength (about 70%), while the mantle protects the kern and determines the handling properties of the rope (how easy it is to hold, to tie knots in, and so on). In dynamic climbing line, core fibres are usually twisted, and chopped into shorter lengths, which makes the rope more elastic. Static kernmantle ropes are made with untwisted core fibres and tighter braid, which causes them to be stiffer in addition to limiting the stretch.

    Other types
    Plaited rope is made by braiding twisted strands, and is also called square braid.[20] It is not as round as twisted rope and coarser to the touch. It is less prone to kinking than twisted rope and, depending on the material, very flexible and therefore easy to handle and knot. This construction exposes all fibres as well, with the same drawbacks as described above. Brait rope is a combination of braided and plaited, a non-rotating alternative to laid three-strand ropes. Due to its excellent energy-absorption characteristics, it is often used by arborists. It is also a popular rope for anchoring and can be used as mooring warps. This type of construction was pioneered by Yale Cordage.

    Endless winding rope is made by winding single strands of high-performance yarns around two end terminations until the desired break strength or stiffness has been reached. This type of rope (often specified as cable to make the difference between a braided or twined construction) has the advantage of having no construction stretch as is the case with above constructions. Endless winding is pioneered by SmartRigging and FibreMax.

    Gallery of µCT/micro-CT images and animations
    2D images / sections
    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 2D top view.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 2D top view zoom.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 2D lateral view.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 2D lateral view 2.jpg
    2D flight-throughs/sections
    File:Micro-CT Rope HighRes 2D Top 2050x2050.ogv

    File:Micro-CT 2D top view flight-through of a braided polymer climbing rope Zoom.ogv

    File:Micro-CT Rope HighRes 2D Right 2560x550 750f 25fps.ogv

    File:Micro-CT Rope HighRes 2D Rotation 2560x550 750f 25fps.ogv
    3D renderings
    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 02.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 03.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 05.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 07.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 08.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 10.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 11.jpg
    3D flight-throughs/sections
    File:Micro-CT Rope HighRes 3D.ogv
    Safe and proper rope handling

    Cordage aboard the French training ship Mutin
    Rope made from hemp, cotton or nylon is generally stored in a cool dry place for proper storage. To prevent kinking it is usually coiled. To prevent fraying or unravelling, the ends of a rope are bound with twine (whipping), tape, or heat shrink tubing. The ends of plastic fibre ropes are often melted and fused solid; however, the rope and knotting expert Geoffrey Budworth warns against this practice thus:[21]

    Sealing rope ends this way is lazy and dangerous. A tugboat operator once sliced the palm of his hand open down to the sinews after the hardened (and obviously sharp) end of a rope that had been heat-sealed pulled through his grasp. There is no substitute for a properly made whipping.

    If a load-bearing rope gets a sharp or sudden jolt or the rope shows signs of deteriorating, it is recommended that the rope be replaced immediately and should be discarded or only used for non-load-bearing tasks.[22][23]

    The average rope life-span is 5 years. Serious inspection should be given to line after that point.[citation needed] However, the use to which a rope is put affects frequency of inspection. Rope used in mission-critical applications, such as mooring lines or running rigging, should be regularly inspected on a much shorter timescale than this, and rope used in life-critical applications such as mountain climbing should be inspected on a far more frequent basis, up to and including before each use.

    When preparing for a climb, it is important to stack the rope on the ground or a tarp and check for any "dead-spots".[citation needed][clarification needed]

    Avoid stepping on rope, as this might force tiny pieces of rock through the sheath, which can eventually deteriorate the core of the rope. Ropes may be flemished into coils on deck for safety and presentation/tidiness as shown in the picture.[citation needed]

    Many kinds of filaments in ropes are weakened by acids or other corrosive liquids or solvents, and high temperatures. Such damage is treacherous because it often is hard to tell by eye.[24] Rope damaged in such ways is dangerous to use. Ropes therefore should be kept away from all kinds of solvents and from corrosive acids, alkalis, and oxidising agents.[25]

    In addition, ropes should avoid sudden load, as a shock load can destroy a rope easily.[26] Any operation of ropes should obey the principle of safe working load, which is usually much less than its ultimate strength. The rope should be replaced immediately if any evidences of shock load have been found.

    A rope under tension – particularly if it has a great deal of elasticity – can be very hazardous if it should part, snapping backward and potentially causing grave or lethal injury to people, or damage to objects, in its path. There are occasions when it is proper to cut a taut rope under load, but this should be done only when necessary and only with great forethought and preparation for the potential consequences.

    Line
    "Rope" refers to the manufactured material. Once rope is purposely sized, cut, spliced, or simply assigned a function, the result is referred to as a "line", especially in nautical usage. Sail control lines are mainly referred to as sheets (e.g. jibsheet). A halyard, for example, is a line used to raise and lower a sail, and is typically made of a length of rope with a shackle attached at one end. Other examples include clothesline, chalk line, anchor line ("rode"), stern line, fishing line, marline and so on.

    See also
    Cordage Institute
    Fid (splicing tool)
    Flagellation, also known as Flogging – Whipping as a punishment
    Physical restraint
    Hanging
    Hawser
    International Year of Natural Fibres, 2009
    Skipping rope, also known as Jump rope
    Knot
    Rigging
    Rope bondage
    Simple suspension bridge
    Rope lock (in theatre fly system)
    Rope splicing
    Ropework
    Sheet (sailing)
    Single-rope technique
    Tightrope walking
    Whipping knot
    References
    Jr, John V. Noel (1988-12-15). Knight's Modern Seamanship. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471289487.
    Army Field Manual FM 5-125 (Rigging Techniques, Procedures and Applications) (PDF). Technical Manual No. 3-34.86/Marine Corps, Reference Publication 3-17.7J. The United States Army. 2012.
    Carver, R.K. (2009). Stagecraft Fundamentals: A Guide and Reference for Theatrical Production. Focal Press. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-240-80857-4. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
    Coles, A. (2009). Skipper's Onboard Knot Guide: Knots, Bends, Hitches and Splices. A&C Black. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7136-8934-1. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
    International Association of Fire Chiefs; National Fire Protection Association (2008). Fundamentals of Fire Fighter Skills. Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. p. 499. ISBN 978-0-7637-5342-9. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
    H A McKenna, J. W. S. Hearle, N O'Hear, Handbook of Fibre Rope Technology, Elsevier, 2004,ISBN 1855739933, page 18
    ListVerse.com (November 2009). The Ultimate Book of Top Ten Lists: A Mind-Boggling Collection of Fun, Fascinating and Bizarre Facts on Movies, Music, Sports, Crime, Celebrities, History, Trivia and More. Ulysses Press. ISBN 978-1-56975-715-4.
    "A Brief History of Rope: 8 Times Rope has Shaped the World – Ropes Direct". Ropes Direct. 2016-07-29. Retrieved 2017-06-13.
    "Fedec | Resources". Archived from the original on January 31, 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
    Small, Meredith F. (April 2002), "String theory: the tradition of spinning raw fibers dates back 28,000 years. (At The Museum).", Natural History, 111.3: 14(2)
    J.C. Turner and P. van de Griend (ed.), The History and Science of Knots (Singapore: World Scientific, 1996), 14.
    (See http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Rope.html, word-for-word not sure which "plagiarized" which)
    J. Bohr and K. Olsen (2010). "The ancient art of laying rope". EPL. 93: 60004. arXiv:1004.0814. Bibcode:2011EL.....9360004B. doi:10.1209/0295-5075/93/60004.
    G.S. Nares (1865), Seamanship (3rd ed.), London: James Griffin, p. 23
    McFarland, Cynthia (2013-08-06). HORSEMANS GT TACK & EQUIPMENT: F. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7627-9598-7.
    Kyosev, Y (2015). Braiding technology for textiles. Cambridge, UK Waltham, MA, USA: Elsevier/ Woodhead Pub. ISBN 978-0-85709-135-2.
    Bexco "Fibre properties"
    "Rope & Fiber Comparison Guide"
    US Rope & Cable How to Match the Rope to the Job
    Boating. June 1965.
    Budworth, Geoffrey (1985). The Knot Book. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. p. 37. ISBN 0-8069-7944-5.
    "Air Winch Safety Info". Retrieved 10 October 2012.
    "Wire Rope Inspections". U.S. DOL, OSHA. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
    Rope Care "How to Maintain Ropes"
    National Research Council (U.S.) (1975). Mechanical Rope and Cable: Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Mechanical Rope and Cable, National Materials Advisory Board, Commission on Sociotechnical Systems, National Research Council. National Academies. pp. 51–54.
    American Telephone and Telegraph Company (1931). Use, Care, and Maintenance of Manila Rope and Blocks.
    Sources
    Gaitzsch, W. Antike Korb- und Seilerwaren, Schriften des Limesmuseums Aalen Nr. 38, 1986
    Gubser, T. Die bäuerliche Seilerei, G. Krebs AG, Basel, 1965
    Hearle, John W. S. & O'Hear & McKenna, N. H. A. Handbook of Fibre Rope Technology, CRC Press, 2004
    Lane, Frederic Chapin, 1932. The Rope Factory and Hemp Trade of Venice in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, Journal of Economic and Business History, Vol. 4 No. 4 Suppl. (August 1932).
    Militzer-Schwenger, L.: Handwerkliche Seilherstellung, Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe, 1992
    Nilson, A. Studier i svenskt repslageri, Stockholm, 1961
    Pierer, H.A. Universal-Lexikon, Altenburg, 1845
    Plymouth Cordage Company, 1931. The Story of Rope; The History and the Modern Development of Rope-Making, Plymouth Cordage Company, North Plymouth, Massachusetts
    Sanctuary, Anthony, 1996. Rope, Twine and Net Making, Shire Publications Ltd., Cromwell House, Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire.
    Schubert, Pit. Sicherheit und Risiko in Fels und Eis, Munich, 1998
    Smith, Bruce & Padgett, Allen, 1996. On Rope. North American Vertical Rope Techniques, National Speleological Society, Huntsville, Alabama.
    Strunk, P.; Abels, J. Das große Abenteuer 2.Teil, Verlag Karl Wenzel, Marburg, 1986.
    Teeter, Emily, 1987. Techniques and Terminology of Rope-Making in Ancient Egypt, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 73 (1987).
    Tyson, William, no date. Rope, a History of the Hard Fibre Cordage Industry in the United Kingdom, Wheatland Journals, Ltd., London.
    Further reading
    Bodmer, Rudolph John; Bodmer, Amelie Willard (1914). "Rope". The Book of Wonders: Gives Plain and Simple Answers to the Thousands of Everyday Questions that are Asked and which All Should be Able To, But Cannot Answer. Presbrey syndicate. pp. 353 onwards.
    Herkommer, Mark (1995). FM 5-125: Rigging Techniques, Procedures, and Applications. Washington, DC: United States Department of the Army.
    External links
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rope.
    Look up rope in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
    Ropewalk: A Cordage Engineer's Journey Through History History of ropemaking resource and nonprofit documentary film
    Watch How Do They Braid Rope?
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    "Hi, my name is Ososis and I'm blaming my shitty life for being such a fragile, soy drinking, emotionally unstable loser. My triggers are: Red reputation, ANY mention of MacGuyver and being called a fragile, soy drinking, emotionally unstable loser."

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ososis View Post
    For rope? Seems like a thread thats gonna discuss a lot of rope.


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    Rope
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigationJump to search
    For other uses, see Rope (disambiguation).

    A coil of rope
    A rope is a group of yarns, plies, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than similarly constructed cord, string, and twine.


    Contents
    1 Construction
    2 Size measurement
    3 Usage
    3.1 Rock climbing ropes
    3.2 Aerial rope
    4 History
    5 Styles of rope construction
    5.1 Laid or twisted rope
    5.2 Braided rope
    5.3 Other types
    6 Gallery of µCT/micro-CT images and animations
    6.1 2D images / sections
    6.2 2D flight-throughs/sections
    6.3 3D renderings
    6.4 3D flight-throughs/sections
    7 Safe and proper rope handling
    8 Line
    9 See also
    10 References
    11 Sources
    12 Further reading
    13 External links
    Construction


    Three-strand twisted natural fiber rope
    Rope may be constructed of any long, stringy, fibrous material, but generally is constructed of certain natural or synthetic fibres.[1] [2][3] Synthetic fibre ropes are significantly stronger than their natural fibre counterparts, they have a higher tensile strength, they are more resistant to rotting than ropes created from natural fibers, and can be made to float on water.[4] But synthetic rope also possess certain disadvantages, including slipperiness, and some can be damaged more easily by UV light.[5]

    Common natural fibres for rope are manila hemp, hemp, linen, cotton, coir, jute, straw, and sisal. Synthetic fibres in use for rope-making include polypropylene, nylon, polyesters (e.g. PET, LCP, Vectran), polyethylene (e.g. Dyneema and Spectra), Aramids (e.g. Twaron, Technora and Kevlar) and acrylics (e.g. Dralon). Some ropes are constructed of mixtures of several fibres or use co-polymer fibres. Wire rope is made of steel or other metal alloys. Ropes have been constructed of other fibrous materials such as silk, wool, and hair, but such ropes are not generally available. Rayon is a regenerated fibre used to make decorative rope.

    The twist of the strands in a twisted or braided rope serves not only to keep a rope together, but enables the rope to more evenly distribute tension among the individual strands. Without any twist in the rope, the shortest strand(s) would always be supporting a much higher proportion of the total load.

    Size measurement
    The long history of rope means that many systems have been used to state the size of a rope. In systems that use the "inch" (British Imperial and United States Customary Measure), large ropes over 1 inch (2.5 cm) diameter such as are used on ships are measured by their circumference in inches; smaller ropes have a nominal diameter based on the circumference divided by three (rounded-down value for pi). In metric systems of measurement, nominal diameter is given in millimetres. The current preferred international standard for rope sizes is to give the mass per unit length, in kilograms per metre. However, even sources otherwise using metric units may still give a "rope number" for large ropes, which is the circumference in inches.[6]

    Usage

    Mooring and rope
    Rope is of paramount importance in fields as diverse as construction, seafaring, exploration, sports, theatre, and communications, and has been used since prehistoric times.[7] To fasten rope, many types of knots have been invented for countless uses.[8] Pulleys redirect the pulling force to another direction, and can create mechanical advantage so that multiple strands of rope share a load and multiply the force applied to the end. Winches and capstans are machines designed to pull ropes.

    Rock climbing ropes

    Dynamic Kernmantle rock climbing rope with its braided sheath cut to expose the twisted core yarns and core yarn plies.

    Section through Kernmantle rope
    The modern sport of rock climbing uses so-called "dynamic" rope, which stretches under load in an elastic manner to absorb the energy required to arrest a person in free fall without generating forces high enough to injure them. Such ropes normally use a kernmantle construction, as described below. "Static" ropes, used for example in caving, rappelling, and rescue applications, are designed for minimal stretch; they are not designed to arrest free falls. The UIAA, in concert with the CEN, sets climbing-rope standards and oversees testing. Any rope bearing a GUIANA or CE certification tag is suitable for climbing. Despite the hundreds of thousands of falls climbers suffer every year, there are few recorded instances of a climbing rope breaking in a fall; the cases that do are often attributable to previous damage to, or contamination of, the rope. Climbing ropes, however, do cut easily when under load. Keeping them away from sharp rock edges is imperative.

    Rock climbing ropes come with either a designation for single, double or twin use. A single rope is the most common and it is intended to be used by itself, as a single strand. Single ropes range in thickness from roughly 9 mm to 11 mm. Smaller ropes are lighter, but wear out faster. Double ropes are thinner ropes, usually 9 mm and under, and are intended for use as a pair. These ropes offer a greater margin or security against cutting, since it is unlikely that both ropes will be cut, but they complicate belaying and leading. Double ropes are usually reserved for ice and mixed climbing, where there is need for two ropes to rappel or abseil. They are also popular among traditional climbers, and particularly in the UK, due to the ability to clip each rope into alternating pieces of protection; allowing the ropes to stay straighter and hence reduce rope drag. Twin ropes are not to be confused with doubles. When using twin ropes, both ropes are clipped into the same piece of protection, treating the two as a single strand. This would be favourable in a situation where there was a high chance of a rope being cut. However new lighter-weight ropes with greater safety have virtually replaced this type of rope.

    The butterfly coil is a method of carrying a rope used by climbers where the rope remains attached to the climber and ready to be uncoiled at short notice. Another method of carrying a rope is the alpine coil.

    Aerial rope
    Rope is also an aerial acrobatics circus skill, where a performer makes artistic figures on a vertical suspended rope. Tricks performed on the rope are, for example, drops, rolls and hangs. They must also be strong.[9] See also Corde lisse.

    History

    Ancient Egyptians were the first to document tools for ropemaking
    The use of ropes for hunting, pulling, fastening, attaching, carrying, lifting, and climbing dates back to prehistoric times. It is likely that the earliest "ropes" were naturally occurring lengths of plant fibre, such as vines, followed soon by the first attempts at twisting and braiding these strands together to form the first proper ropes in the modern sense of the word. Impressions of cordage found on fired clay provide evidence of string and rope-making technology in Europe dating back 28,000 years.[10] Fossilized fragments of "probably two-ply laid rope of about 7 mm diameter" were found in one of the caves at Lascaux, dating to approximately 15,000 BC.[11]

    The ancient Egyptians were probably the first civilization to develop special tools to make rope. Egyptian rope dates back to 4000 to 3500 B.C. and was generally made of water reed fibres.[12] Other rope in antiquity was made from the fibres of date palms, flax, grass, papyrus, leather, or animal hair. The use of such ropes pulled by thousands of workers allowed the Egyptians to move the heavy stones required to build their monuments. Starting from approximately 2800 B.C., rope made of hemp fibres was in use in China. Rope and the craft of rope making spread throughout Asia, India, and Europe over the next several thousand years.

    In the Middle Ages (from the 13th to the 18th centuries), from the British Isles to Italy, ropes were constructed in ropewalks, very long buildings where strands the full length of the rope were spread out and then laid up or twisted together to form the rope. The cable length was thus set by the length of the available rope walk. This is related to the unit of length termed cable length. This allowed for long ropes of up to 300 yards long or longer to be made. These long ropes were necessary in shipping as short ropes would require splicing to make them long enough to use for sheets and halyards. The strongest form of splicing is the short splice, which doubles the cross-sectional area of the rope at the area of the splice, which would cause problems in running the line through pulleys. Any splices narrow enough to maintain smooth running would be less able to support the required weight.[citation needed]

    Leonardo da Vinci drew sketches of a concept for a ropemaking machine, but it was never built. Nevertheless, remarkable feats of construction were accomplished without advanced technology: In 1586, Domenico Fontana erected the 327 ton obelisk on Rome's Saint Peter's Square with a concerted effort of 900 men, 75 horses, and countless pulleys and meters of rope. By the late 18th century several working machines had been built and patented.

    Some rope is still made from natural fibres, such as coir and sisal, despite the dominance of synthetic fibres such as nylon and polypropylene, which have become increasingly popular since the 1950s.


    A ropemaker at work, c. 1425



    A German ropemaker, around 1470 AD



    Public demonstration of historical ropemaking technique



    A piece of preserved rope found on board the 16th century carrack Mary Rose



    A ropewalk in Karlskrona, Sweden

    Styles of rope construction
    Laid or twisted rope

    Illustration of the S and Z naming convention
    Laid rope, also called twisted rope, is historically the prevalent form of rope, at least in modern Western history. Common twisted rope generally consists of three strands and is normally right-laid, or given a final right-handed twist. The ISO 2 standard uses the uppercase letters S and Z to indicate the two possible directions of twist, as suggested by the direction of slant of the central portions of these two letters. The handedness of the twist is the direction of the twists as they progress away from an observer. Thus Z-twist rope is said to be right-handed, and S-twist to be left-handed.

    Twisted ropes are built up in three steps. First, fibres are gathered and spun into yarns. A number of these yarns are then formed into strands by twisting. The strands are then twisted together to lay the rope. The twist of the yarn is opposite to that of the strand, and that in turn is opposite to that of the rope. It is this counter-twist, introduced with each successive operation, which holds the final rope together as a stable, unified object.[13]


    Rope making using the twisted rope method on a 1928 Metters Rope Making Machine
    Traditionally, a three strand laid rope is called a plain- or hawser-laid, a four strand rope is called shroud-laid, and a larger rope formed by counter-twisting three or more multi-strand ropes together is called cable-laid.[14] Cable-laid rope is sometimes clamped to maintain a tight counter-twist rendering the resulting cable virtually waterproof. Without this feature, deep water sailing (before the advent of steel chains and other lines) was largely impossible, as any appreciable length of rope for anchoring or ship to ship transfers, would become too waterlogged – and therefore too heavy – to lift, even with the aid of a capstan or windlass.

    One property of laid rope is partial untwisting when used.[15] This can cause spinning of suspended loads, or stretching, kinking, or hockling of the rope itself. An additional drawback of twisted construction is that every fibre is exposed to abrasion numerous times along the length of the rope. This means that the rope can degrade to numerous inch-long fibre fragments, which is not easily detected visually.[citation needed]

    Twisted ropes have a preferred direction for coiling. Normal right-laid rope should be coiled clockwise, to prevent kinking. Coiling this way imparts a twist to the rope. Rope of this type must be bound at its ends by some means to prevent untwisting.

    Braided rope

    A rope braiding machine at the Arbetets Museum (Museum of Work) in Norrköping, Sweden
    While rope may be made from three or more strands,[16] modern braided rope consists of a braided (tubular) jacket over strands of fiber (these may also be braided). Some forms of braided rope with untwisted cores have a particular advantage; they do not impart an additional twisting force when they are stressed. The lack of added twisting forces is an advantage when a load is freely suspended, as when a rope is used for rappelling or to suspend an arborist. Other specialized cores reduce the shock from arresting a fall when used as a part of a personal or group safety system.

    Braided ropes are generally made from nylon, polyester, polypropylene or high performance fibers such as high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) and aramid. Nylon is chosen for its strength and elastic stretch properties. However, nylon absorbs water and is 10–15% weaker when wet. Polyester is about 90% as strong as nylon but stretches less under load and is not affected by water. It has somewhat better UV resistance, and is more abrasion resistant. Polypropylene is preferred for low cost and light weight (it floats on water) but it has limited resistance to ultraviolet light, is susceptible to friction and has a poor heat resistance.[17][18][19]

    Braided ropes (and objects like garden hoses, fibre optic or coaxial cables, etc.) that have no lay (or inherent twist) uncoil better if each alternate loop is twisted in the opposite direction, such as in figure-eight coils, where the twist reverses regularly and essentially cancels out.

    Single braid consists of an even number of strands, eight or twelve being typical, braided into a circular pattern with half of the strands going clockwise and the other half going anticlockwise. The strands can interlock with either twill or plain weave. The central void may be large or small; in the former case the term hollow braid is sometimes preferred.

    Double braid, also called braid on braid, consists of an inner braid filling the central void in an outer braid, that may be of the same or different material. Often the inner braid fibre is chosen for strength while the outer braid fibre is chosen for abrasion resistance.

    In solid braid, the strands all travel the same direction, clockwise or anticlockwise, and alternate between forming the outside of the rope and the interior of the rope. This construction is popular for general purpose utility rope but rare in specialized high performance line.

    Kernmantle rope has a core (kern) of long twisted fibres in the center, with a braided outer sheath or mantle of woven fibres. The kern provides most of the strength (about 70%), while the mantle protects the kern and determines the handling properties of the rope (how easy it is to hold, to tie knots in, and so on). In dynamic climbing line, core fibres are usually twisted, and chopped into shorter lengths, which makes the rope more elastic. Static kernmantle ropes are made with untwisted core fibres and tighter braid, which causes them to be stiffer in addition to limiting the stretch.

    Other types
    Plaited rope is made by braiding twisted strands, and is also called square braid.[20] It is not as round as twisted rope and coarser to the touch. It is less prone to kinking than twisted rope and, depending on the material, very flexible and therefore easy to handle and knot. This construction exposes all fibres as well, with the same drawbacks as described above. Brait rope is a combination of braided and plaited, a non-rotating alternative to laid three-strand ropes. Due to its excellent energy-absorption characteristics, it is often used by arborists. It is also a popular rope for anchoring and can be used as mooring warps. This type of construction was pioneered by Yale Cordage.

    Endless winding rope is made by winding single strands of high-performance yarns around two end terminations until the desired break strength or stiffness has been reached. This type of rope (often specified as cable to make the difference between a braided or twined construction) has the advantage of having no construction stretch as is the case with above constructions. Endless winding is pioneered by SmartRigging and FibreMax.

    Gallery of µCT/micro-CT images and animations
    2D images / sections
    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 2D top view.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 2D top view zoom.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 2D lateral view.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 2D lateral view 2.jpg
    2D flight-throughs/sections
    File:Micro-CT Rope HighRes 2D Top 2050x2050.ogv

    File:Micro-CT 2D top view flight-through of a braided polymer climbing rope Zoom.ogv

    File:Micro-CT Rope HighRes 2D Right 2560x550 750f 25fps.ogv

    File:Micro-CT Rope HighRes 2D Rotation 2560x550 750f 25fps.ogv
    3D renderings
    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 02.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 03.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 05.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 07.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 08.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 10.jpg

    Micro-CT braided polymer rope 3D 11.jpg
    3D flight-throughs/sections
    File:Micro-CT Rope HighRes 3D.ogv
    Safe and proper rope handling

    Cordage aboard the French training ship Mutin
    Rope made from hemp, cotton or nylon is generally stored in a cool dry place for proper storage. To prevent kinking it is usually coiled. To prevent fraying or unravelling, the ends of a rope are bound with twine (whipping), tape, or heat shrink tubing. The ends of plastic fibre ropes are often melted and fused solid; however, the rope and knotting expert Geoffrey Budworth warns against this practice thus:[21]

    Sealing rope ends this way is lazy and dangerous. A tugboat operator once sliced the palm of his hand open down to the sinews after the hardened (and obviously sharp) end of a rope that had been heat-sealed pulled through his grasp. There is no substitute for a properly made whipping.

    If a load-bearing rope gets a sharp or sudden jolt or the rope shows signs of deteriorating, it is recommended that the rope be replaced immediately and should be discarded or only used for non-load-bearing tasks.[22][23]

    The average rope life-span is 5 years. Serious inspection should be given to line after that point.[citation needed] However, the use to which a rope is put affects frequency of inspection. Rope used in mission-critical applications, such as mooring lines or running rigging, should be regularly inspected on a much shorter timescale than this, and rope used in life-critical applications such as mountain climbing should be inspected on a far more frequent basis, up to and including before each use.

    When preparing for a climb, it is important to stack the rope on the ground or a tarp and check for any "dead-spots".[citation needed][clarification needed]

    Avoid stepping on rope, as this might force tiny pieces of rock through the sheath, which can eventually deteriorate the core of the rope. Ropes may be flemished into coils on deck for safety and presentation/tidiness as shown in the picture.[citation needed]

    Many kinds of filaments in ropes are weakened by acids or other corrosive liquids or solvents, and high temperatures. Such damage is treacherous because it often is hard to tell by eye.[24] Rope damaged in such ways is dangerous to use. Ropes therefore should be kept away from all kinds of solvents and from corrosive acids, alkalis, and oxidising agents.[25]

    In addition, ropes should avoid sudden load, as a shock load can destroy a rope easily.[26] Any operation of ropes should obey the principle of safe working load, which is usually much less than its ultimate strength. The rope should be replaced immediately if any evidences of shock load have been found.

    A rope under tension – particularly if it has a great deal of elasticity – can be very hazardous if it should part, snapping backward and potentially causing grave or lethal injury to people, or damage to objects, in its path. There are occasions when it is proper to cut a taut rope under load, but this should be done only when necessary and only with great forethought and preparation for the potential consequences.

    Line
    "Rope" refers to the manufactured material. Once rope is purposely sized, cut, spliced, or simply assigned a function, the result is referred to as a "line", especially in nautical usage. Sail control lines are mainly referred to as sheets (e.g. jibsheet). A halyard, for example, is a line used to raise and lower a sail, and is typically made of a length of rope with a shackle attached at one end. Other examples include clothesline, chalk line, anchor line ("rode"), stern line, fishing line, marline and so on.

    See also
    Cordage Institute
    Fid (splicing tool)
    Flagellation, also known as Flogging – Whipping as a punishment
    Physical restraint
    Hanging
    Hawser
    International Year of Natural Fibres, 2009
    Skipping rope, also known as Jump rope
    Knot
    Rigging
    Rope bondage
    Simple suspension bridge
    Rope lock (in theatre fly system)
    Rope splicing
    Ropework
    Sheet (sailing)
    Single-rope technique
    Tightrope walking
    Whipping knot
    References
    Jr, John V. Noel (1988-12-15). Knight's Modern Seamanship. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471289487.
    Army Field Manual FM 5-125 (Rigging Techniques, Procedures and Applications) (PDF). Technical Manual No. 3-34.86/Marine Corps, Reference Publication 3-17.7J. The United States Army. 2012.
    Carver, R.K. (2009). Stagecraft Fundamentals: A Guide and Reference for Theatrical Production. Focal Press. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-240-80857-4. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
    Coles, A. (2009). Skipper's Onboard Knot Guide: Knots, Bends, Hitches and Splices. A&C Black. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7136-8934-1. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
    International Association of Fire Chiefs; National Fire Protection Association (2008). Fundamentals of Fire Fighter Skills. Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. p. 499. ISBN 978-0-7637-5342-9. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
    H A McKenna, J. W. S. Hearle, N O'Hear, Handbook of Fibre Rope Technology, Elsevier, 2004,ISBN 1855739933, page 18
    ListVerse.com (November 2009). The Ultimate Book of Top Ten Lists: A Mind-Boggling Collection of Fun, Fascinating and Bizarre Facts on Movies, Music, Sports, Crime, Celebrities, History, Trivia and More. Ulysses Press. ISBN 978-1-56975-715-4.
    "A Brief History of Rope: 8 Times Rope has Shaped the World – Ropes Direct". Ropes Direct. 2016-07-29. Retrieved 2017-06-13.
    "Fedec | Resources". Archived from the original on January 31, 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
    Small, Meredith F. (April 2002), "String theory: the tradition of spinning raw fibers dates back 28,000 years. (At The Museum).", Natural History, 111.3: 14(2)
    J.C. Turner and P. van de Griend (ed.), The History and Science of Knots (Singapore: World Scientific, 1996), 14.
    (See http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Rope.html, word-for-word not sure which "plagiarized" which)
    J. Bohr and K. Olsen (2010). "The ancient art of laying rope". EPL. 93: 60004. arXiv:1004.0814. Bibcode:2011EL.....9360004B. doi:10.1209/0295-5075/93/60004.
    G.S. Nares (1865), Seamanship (3rd ed.), London: James Griffin, p. 23
    McFarland, Cynthia (2013-08-06). HORSEMANS GT TACK & EQUIPMENT: F. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7627-9598-7.
    Kyosev, Y (2015). Braiding technology for textiles. Cambridge, UK Waltham, MA, USA: Elsevier/ Woodhead Pub. ISBN 978-0-85709-135-2.
    Bexco "Fibre properties"
    "Rope & Fiber Comparison Guide"
    US Rope & Cable How to Match the Rope to the Job
    Boating. June 1965.
    Budworth, Geoffrey (1985). The Knot Book. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. p. 37. ISBN 0-8069-7944-5.
    "Air Winch Safety Info". Retrieved 10 October 2012.
    "Wire Rope Inspections". U.S. DOL, OSHA. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
    Rope Care "How to Maintain Ropes"
    National Research Council (U.S.) (1975). Mechanical Rope and Cable: Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Mechanical Rope and Cable, National Materials Advisory Board, Commission on Sociotechnical Systems, National Research Council. National Academies. pp. 51–54.
    American Telephone and Telegraph Company (1931). Use, Care, and Maintenance of Manila Rope and Blocks.
    Sources
    Gaitzsch, W. Antike Korb- und Seilerwaren, Schriften des Limesmuseums Aalen Nr. 38, 1986
    Gubser, T. Die bäuerliche Seilerei, G. Krebs AG, Basel, 1965
    Hearle, John W. S. & O'Hear & McKenna, N. H. A. Handbook of Fibre Rope Technology, CRC Press, 2004
    Lane, Frederic Chapin, 1932. The Rope Factory and Hemp Trade of Venice in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, Journal of Economic and Business History, Vol. 4 No. 4 Suppl. (August 1932).
    Militzer-Schwenger, L.: Handwerkliche Seilherstellung, Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe, 1992
    Nilson, A. Studier i svenskt repslageri, Stockholm, 1961
    Pierer, H.A. Universal-Lexikon, Altenburg, 1845
    Plymouth Cordage Company, 1931. The Story of Rope; The History and the Modern Development of Rope-Making, Plymouth Cordage Company, North Plymouth, Massachusetts
    Sanctuary, Anthony, 1996. Rope, Twine and Net Making, Shire Publications Ltd., Cromwell House, Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire.
    Schubert, Pit. Sicherheit und Risiko in Fels und Eis, Munich, 1998
    Smith, Bruce & Padgett, Allen, 1996. On Rope. North American Vertical Rope Techniques, National Speleological Society, Huntsville, Alabama.
    Strunk, P.; Abels, J. Das große Abenteuer 2.Teil, Verlag Karl Wenzel, Marburg, 1986.
    Teeter, Emily, 1987. Techniques and Terminology of Rope-Making in Ancient Egypt, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 73 (1987).
    Tyson, William, no date. Rope, a History of the Hard Fibre Cordage Industry in the United Kingdom, Wheatland Journals, Ltd., London.
    Further reading
    Bodmer, Rudolph John; Bodmer, Amelie Willard (1914). "Rope". The Book of Wonders: Gives Plain and Simple Answers to the Thousands of Everyday Questions that are Asked and which All Should be Able To, But Cannot Answer. Presbrey syndicate. pp. 353 onwards.
    Herkommer, Mark (1995). FM 5-125: Rigging Techniques, Procedures, and Applications. Washington, DC: United States Department of the Army.
    External links
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rope.
    Look up rope in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
    Ropewalk: A Cordage Engineer's Journey Through History History of ropemaking resource and nonprofit documentary film
    Watch How Do They Braid Rope?
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    I'm a thread man, myself.

    Thread (yarn)
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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    This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. (December 2015)

    Spools of thread

    Multi-colored stranded embroidery floss
    Thread is a type of yarn but similarly used for sewing. It can be made out of many different materials including cotton, linen, nylon, and silk .


    Contents
    1 Materials
    2 Different weights
    2.1 Thread gauges
    2.1.1 Wt and Gunze count
    2.1.2 Denier
    2.1.3 Tex
    2.1.4 Aughts
    2.2 Conversion information
    3 High-temperature sewing threads
    4 See also
    5 Notes
    Materials
    Thread is made from a wide variety of materials. Where a thread is stronger than the material that it is being used to join, if seams are placed under strain the material may tear before the thread breaks. Garments are usually sewn with threads of lesser strength than the fabric so that if stressed the seam will break before the garment. Heavy goods that must withstand considerable stresses such as upholstery, car seating, tarpaulins, tents, and saddlery require very strong threads. Attempting repairs with light weight thread will usually result in rapid failure, though again, using a thread that is stronger than the material being sewn can end up causing rips in that material before the thread itself gives way.

    Thread material
    Material Description Purpose
    Cotton Spun traditional thread general
    Cotton/polyester A cotton thread with a polyester core which is slightly stretchy but retains the traditional look of cotton strength without sheen
    Fusible Fuses sewn fabrics together when ironed binding and appliqué
    Linen A spun thread, typically in a thicker gauge than that used for fabric garments. It may be waxed for durability and resistance to mildew. Traditional leather saddlery; leather luggage, handbags, and accessories; and beadwork.
    Metallics A delicate metallic coating protected by an outer coating providing extremely vibrant color/glitter and/or texture. decoration
    Nylon A transparent monofillament which can be melted by an iron. Nylon is usually stronger than polyester. strength with transparency
    Polyester A synthetic blend which is stronger and stretchier than cotton with little or no lint (may be texturized) strength
    Rayon Made from cellulose, but not considered to be a natural fibre because it is highly processed. Useful for obtaining bright colors, though not always color-fast. high sheen, soft texture
    Silk A very fine, strong and hard-to-see thread; tends to degrade over time, however. high strength and often high sheen, used for attaching beads
    Wool A thicker thread. homespun look, rougher texture, highly insulating, water absorbent
    Water-soluble Dissolves when washed temporary basting
    [1]

    Polyester/polyester core spun thread is made by wrapping staple polyester around a continuous polyester filament during spinning and plying these yarns into a sewing thread. Core Spun Thread

    Different weights
    Thread gauges
    Yarns are measured by the density of the yarn, which is described by various units of textile measurement relating to a standardized length per weight. These units do not directly correspond to thread diameter.

    Wt and Gunze count
    The most common weight system specifies the length of the thread in kilometres required to weigh 1 kilogram. Therefore, a greater weight number (indicated in the American standard by the abbreviation wt) indicates a thinner, finer thread. The American standard of thread weight was adopted from the Gunze Count standard of Japan which uses two numbers separated by a forward slash. The first number corresponds to the wt number of the thread and the second number indicates how many strands of fiber were used to compose the finished thread. It is common to wrap three strands of the same weight to make one thread, though this is not a formal requirement in the US standard (which is therefore less informative).

    Thread Weight Table
    Weight Gunze Count Common Use[2]
    Light 60 wt #60/3 bobbin or appliqué
    Thin 50 wt #50/3 bobbin or appliqué
    Regular 40 wt #40/3 Quilting
    Upholstery 30 wt #30/3 Decorative
    Heavy 20 wt #20/3 Decorative
    Denier
    A denier weight specification states how many grams 9,000 meters of the thread weighs. Unlike the common thread weight system, the greater the denier number, the thicker the thread. The denier weight system, like the common weight system, also specifies the number of strands of the specified weight which were wrapped together to make the finished thread.

    Tex
    Tex is the mass in grams of 1,000 meters of thread. If 1,000 meters weighs 25 grams, it is a tex 25. Larger tex numbers are heavier threads. Tex is used more commonly in Europe and Canada.

    Aughts
    Some thread manufacturers, especially those producing very fine silk threads, apply their own scales of thread measurement using "aughts" or zeroes (not unlike the zeros used in measuring the sizes of seed beads). Within a given manufacturer's spectrum, a higher "aught count" indicates a finer thread: this is usually given as a single digit followed by a forward slash and a zero— for example, 3/0 indicates a three-aught thread or a thread size "000", but this number only has significance when compared to other threads produced by the same manufacturer: one manufacturer's 4/0 will always be more fine than that same manufacturer's 2/0, but will mean nothing if compared to the 4/0 of another manufacturer. The aught scale therefore is not suitable for conversion or comparison to other more-generalized weight scales, though it is in common use.

    Conversion information
    Thread weight conversion table

    Converting From Converting To Method
    Weight Denier 9000 / weight
    Weight Tex 1000 / weight
    Denier Weight 9000 / denier
    Denier Tex denier / 9
    Tex Denier tex x 9
    Tex Weight 1000 / tex
    For example: 40 weight = 225 denier = Tex 25. A common Tex number for general sewing thread is Tex 25 or Tex 30. A slightly heavier silk buttonhole thread suitable for bartacking, small leather items, and decorative seams might be Tex 40. A strong, durable upholstery thread, Tex 75. A heavy duty topstitching thread for coats, bags, and shoes, Tex 100. A very strong topstitching thread suitable for luggage and tarpaulins, Tex 265-Tex 290. But a fine serging thread, only Tex 13. For blindstitching and felling machines, an even finer Tex 8.

    High-temperature sewing threads
    High temperature sewing threads provide durability and resistance to extreme temperatures. Some threads can be used for applications up to 800 °C (1472 °F). There are a variety of different sewing threads available which have different applications and benefits.

    Kevlar-coated stainless steel sewing threads have a high-temperature and flame-resistant steel core combined with Kevlar coating designed to facilitate easier machine sewing. The stainless steel core has a temperature resistance of up to 800 °C (1472 °F) and the Kevlar coating is heat-resistant up to 220 °C (428 °F).

    PTFE coated glass sewing threads have an excellent temperature resistance combined with a PTFE coating to provide easier machine sewing. The glass core has a temperature resistance of up to 550 °C (1022 °F) and the PTFE coating is heat-resistant up to 230 °C (446 °F).

    Nomex sewing threads are inherently flame-retardant and heat-resistant with a tough protective coating which resists abrasion during the sewing operation. It is temperature resistant up to 370 °C (698 °F).

    Bonded nylon sewing threads are tough, coated with abrasion resistance, rot proofing, and have good tensile strength for lower temperature applications. They are temperature-resistant up to 120 °C (248 °F).

    Bonded polyester sewing threads are tough, coated with abrasion resistance, rotproofing, and have exceptional tensile strength for lower temperatures but heavier-duty sewing operations. They are temperature-resistant up to 120 °C (248 °F).

    See also
    Look up thread in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
    Eisengarn ('iron yarn')
    Hank (textile)
    Sewing needle
    Staple (textiles)
    Stitch (textile arts)
    Notes
    "Thread Tips - Threads for Quilters". Quilting.about.com. 2011-10-16. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
    "How to choose the right thread for your project and your sewing machine". Quiltbug.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
    vte
    Sewing
    Techniques
    Basting Cut Darning Ease Embellishment Fabric tube turning Floating canvas Gather Godet Gusset Heirloom sewing Shirring
    Stitches
    List of sewing stitches Backstitch Bar tack Blanket Blind stitch Buttonhole Catch stitch Chain stitch Cross-stitch Embroidery stitch Hemstitch Lockstitch Overlock Pad stitch Pick stitch Rantering Running Sashiko Stoating Tack Topstitch Zigzag
    Seams
    Neckline Felled seam Seam allowance Style line
    NotionsTrim
    Bias tape Collar stay Elastic Galloon Grommet / Eyelet Interfacing Passementerie Piping Ruffle Rickrack Self-fabric Soutache Twill tape Wrights
    Closures
    Buckle Button Buttonhole Frog Hook-and-eye Hook-and-loop fastener Shank Snap Zipper
    Materials
    Grain / Bias Selvage Textile / Fabric Thread Yarn
    Tools
    Bobbin Dress form Needlecase Needle threader Pattern notcher Pin Pincushion Pinking shears Scissors Seam ripper Sewing gauge Sewing needle Stitching awl Tailor's ham Tape measure Thimble Tracing paper Tracing wheel
    TradesSuppliers
    Cloth merchant Draper Dressmaker Haberdasher Mercer Sewing occupations Tailor
    Sewing machine
    manufacturers
    List of sewing machine brands and companies Barthélemy Thimonnier Bernina International Brother Industries Elias Howe Elna Feiyue Frister & Rossmann Janome Jones Sewing Machine Company Juki Merrow New Home Pfaff Sewmor Singer Tape edge machine Viking / Husqvarna White
    Pattern manufacturers
    Butterick Burda Clothkits McCall's Simplicity
    Media related to Sewing at Wikimedia Commons Blue crocheting thread.jpg Textile arts portal Glossary of terms
    Categories: YarnTextiles
    Navigation menu
    Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inArticleTalkReadEditView historySearch
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    This page was last edited on 20 March 2019, at 19:21 (UTC).
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    You had better pay your guild dues before you forget. You are 113 months behind.

  5. Default

    Quote Originally Posted by Taernath View Post
    I'm a thread man, myself.

    Thread (yarn)
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigationJump to search
    Wiki letter w.svg
    This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. (December 2015)

    Spools of thread

    Multi-colored stranded embroidery floss
    Thread is a type of yarn but similarly used for sewing. It can be made out of many different materials including cotton, linen, nylon, and silk .


    Contents
    1 Materials
    2 Different weights
    2.1 Thread gauges
    2.1.1 Wt and Gunze count
    2.1.2 Denier
    2.1.3 Tex
    2.1.4 Aughts
    2.2 Conversion information
    3 High-temperature sewing threads
    4 See also
    5 Notes
    Materials
    Thread is made from a wide variety of materials. Where a thread is stronger than the material that it is being used to join, if seams are placed under strain the material may tear before the thread breaks. Garments are usually sewn with threads of lesser strength than the fabric so that if stressed the seam will break before the garment. Heavy goods that must withstand considerable stresses such as upholstery, car seating, tarpaulins, tents, and saddlery require very strong threads. Attempting repairs with light weight thread will usually result in rapid failure, though again, using a thread that is stronger than the material being sewn can end up causing rips in that material before the thread itself gives way.

    Thread material
    Material Description Purpose
    Cotton Spun traditional thread general
    Cotton/polyester A cotton thread with a polyester core which is slightly stretchy but retains the traditional look of cotton strength without sheen
    Fusible Fuses sewn fabrics together when ironed binding and appliqué
    Linen A spun thread, typically in a thicker gauge than that used for fabric garments. It may be waxed for durability and resistance to mildew. Traditional leather saddlery; leather luggage, handbags, and accessories; and beadwork.
    Metallics A delicate metallic coating protected by an outer coating providing extremely vibrant color/glitter and/or texture. decoration
    Nylon A transparent monofillament which can be melted by an iron. Nylon is usually stronger than polyester. strength with transparency
    Polyester A synthetic blend which is stronger and stretchier than cotton with little or no lint (may be texturized) strength
    Rayon Made from cellulose, but not considered to be a natural fibre because it is highly processed. Useful for obtaining bright colors, though not always color-fast. high sheen, soft texture
    Silk A very fine, strong and hard-to-see thread; tends to degrade over time, however. high strength and often high sheen, used for attaching beads
    Wool A thicker thread. homespun look, rougher texture, highly insulating, water absorbent
    Water-soluble Dissolves when washed temporary basting
    [1]

    Polyester/polyester core spun thread is made by wrapping staple polyester around a continuous polyester filament during spinning and plying these yarns into a sewing thread. Core Spun Thread

    Different weights
    Thread gauges
    Yarns are measured by the density of the yarn, which is described by various units of textile measurement relating to a standardized length per weight. These units do not directly correspond to thread diameter.

    Wt and Gunze count
    The most common weight system specifies the length of the thread in kilometres required to weigh 1 kilogram. Therefore, a greater weight number (indicated in the American standard by the abbreviation wt) indicates a thinner, finer thread. The American standard of thread weight was adopted from the Gunze Count standard of Japan which uses two numbers separated by a forward slash. The first number corresponds to the wt number of the thread and the second number indicates how many strands of fiber were used to compose the finished thread. It is common to wrap three strands of the same weight to make one thread, though this is not a formal requirement in the US standard (which is therefore less informative).

    Thread Weight Table
    Weight Gunze Count Common Use[2]
    Light 60 wt #60/3 bobbin or appliqué
    Thin 50 wt #50/3 bobbin or appliqué
    Regular 40 wt #40/3 Quilting
    Upholstery 30 wt #30/3 Decorative
    Heavy 20 wt #20/3 Decorative
    Denier
    A denier weight specification states how many grams 9,000 meters of the thread weighs. Unlike the common thread weight system, the greater the denier number, the thicker the thread. The denier weight system, like the common weight system, also specifies the number of strands of the specified weight which were wrapped together to make the finished thread.

    Tex
    Tex is the mass in grams of 1,000 meters of thread. If 1,000 meters weighs 25 grams, it is a tex 25. Larger tex numbers are heavier threads. Tex is used more commonly in Europe and Canada.

    Aughts
    Some thread manufacturers, especially those producing very fine silk threads, apply their own scales of thread measurement using "aughts" or zeroes (not unlike the zeros used in measuring the sizes of seed beads). Within a given manufacturer's spectrum, a higher "aught count" indicates a finer thread: this is usually given as a single digit followed by a forward slash and a zero— for example, 3/0 indicates a three-aught thread or a thread size "000", but this number only has significance when compared to other threads produced by the same manufacturer: one manufacturer's 4/0 will always be more fine than that same manufacturer's 2/0, but will mean nothing if compared to the 4/0 of another manufacturer. The aught scale therefore is not suitable for conversion or comparison to other more-generalized weight scales, though it is in common use.

    Conversion information
    Thread weight conversion table

    Converting From Converting To Method
    Weight Denier 9000 / weight
    Weight Tex 1000 / weight
    Denier Weight 9000 / denier
    Denier Tex denier / 9
    Tex Denier tex x 9
    Tex Weight 1000 / tex
    For example: 40 weight = 225 denier = Tex 25. A common Tex number for general sewing thread is Tex 25 or Tex 30. A slightly heavier silk buttonhole thread suitable for bartacking, small leather items, and decorative seams might be Tex 40. A strong, durable upholstery thread, Tex 75. A heavy duty topstitching thread for coats, bags, and shoes, Tex 100. A very strong topstitching thread suitable for luggage and tarpaulins, Tex 265-Tex 290. But a fine serging thread, only Tex 13. For blindstitching and felling machines, an even finer Tex 8.

    High-temperature sewing threads
    High temperature sewing threads provide durability and resistance to extreme temperatures. Some threads can be used for applications up to 800 °C (1472 °F). There are a variety of different sewing threads available which have different applications and benefits.

    Kevlar-coated stainless steel sewing threads have a high-temperature and flame-resistant steel core combined with Kevlar coating designed to facilitate easier machine sewing. The stainless steel core has a temperature resistance of up to 800 °C (1472 °F) and the Kevlar coating is heat-resistant up to 220 °C (428 °F).

    PTFE coated glass sewing threads have an excellent temperature resistance combined with a PTFE coating to provide easier machine sewing. The glass core has a temperature resistance of up to 550 °C (1022 °F) and the PTFE coating is heat-resistant up to 230 °C (446 °F).

    Nomex sewing threads are inherently flame-retardant and heat-resistant with a tough protective coating which resists abrasion during the sewing operation. It is temperature resistant up to 370 °C (698 °F).

    Bonded nylon sewing threads are tough, coated with abrasion resistance, rot proofing, and have good tensile strength for lower temperature applications. They are temperature-resistant up to 120 °C (248 °F).

    Bonded polyester sewing threads are tough, coated with abrasion resistance, rotproofing, and have exceptional tensile strength for lower temperatures but heavier-duty sewing operations. They are temperature-resistant up to 120 °C (248 °F).

    See also
    Look up thread in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
    Eisengarn ('iron yarn')
    Hank (textile)
    Sewing needle
    Staple (textiles)
    Stitch (textile arts)
    Notes
    "Thread Tips - Threads for Quilters". Quilting.about.com. 2011-10-16. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
    "How to choose the right thread for your project and your sewing machine". Quiltbug.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
    vte
    Sewing
    Techniques
    Basting Cut Darning Ease Embellishment Fabric tube turning Floating canvas Gather Godet Gusset Heirloom sewing Shirring
    Stitches
    List of sewing stitches Backstitch Bar tack Blanket Blind stitch Buttonhole Catch stitch Chain stitch Cross-stitch Embroidery stitch Hemstitch Lockstitch Overlock Pad stitch Pick stitch Rantering Running Sashiko Stoating Tack Topstitch Zigzag
    Seams
    Neckline Felled seam Seam allowance Style line
    NotionsTrim
    Bias tape Collar stay Elastic Galloon Grommet / Eyelet Interfacing Passementerie Piping Ruffle Rickrack Self-fabric Soutache Twill tape Wrights
    Closures
    Buckle Button Buttonhole Frog Hook-and-eye Hook-and-loop fastener Shank Snap Zipper
    Materials
    Grain / Bias Selvage Textile / Fabric Thread Yarn
    Tools
    Bobbin Dress form Needlecase Needle threader Pattern notcher Pin Pincushion Pinking shears Scissors Seam ripper Sewing gauge Sewing needle Stitching awl Tailor's ham Tape measure Thimble Tracing paper Tracing wheel
    TradesSuppliers
    Cloth merchant Draper Dressmaker Haberdasher Mercer Sewing occupations Tailor
    Sewing machine
    manufacturers
    List of sewing machine brands and companies Barthélemy Thimonnier Bernina International Brother Industries Elias Howe Elna Feiyue Frister & Rossmann Janome Jones Sewing Machine Company Juki Merrow New Home Pfaff Sewmor Singer Tape edge machine Viking / Husqvarna White
    Pattern manufacturers
    Butterick Burda Clothkits McCall's Simplicity
    Media related to Sewing at Wikimedia Commons Blue crocheting thread.jpg Textile arts portal Glossary of terms
    Categories: YarnTextiles
    Navigation menu
    Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inArticleTalkReadEditView historySearch
    Search Wikipedia
    Main page
    Contents
    Featured content
    Current events
    Random article
    Donate to Wikipedia
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    Help
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    What links here
    Related changes
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    Languages
    Беларуская
    Deutsch
    Español
    हिन्दी
    Polski
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    اردو
    20 more
    Edit links
    This page was last edited on 20 March 2019, at 19:21 (UTC).
    Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
    I love your post bro
    Ardwen the submitive: [LNet]-GSIV:Ardwen: "not like I was given a choice to opt out of bro mode, bro"

  6. Default

    Quote Originally Posted by Taernath View Post
    I'm a thread man, myself.

    Thread (yarn)
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigationJump to search
    Wiki letter w.svg
    This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. (December 2015)

    Spools of thread

    Multi-colored stranded embroidery floss
    Thread is a type of yarn but similarly used for sewing. It can be made out of many different materials including cotton, linen, nylon, and silk .


    Contents
    1 Materials
    2 Different weights
    2.1 Thread gauges
    2.1.1 Wt and Gunze count
    2.1.2 Denier
    2.1.3 Tex
    2.1.4 Aughts
    2.2 Conversion information
    3 High-temperature sewing threads
    4 See also
    5 Notes
    Materials
    Thread is made from a wide variety of materials. Where a thread is stronger than the material that it is being used to join, if seams are placed under strain the material may tear before the thread breaks. Garments are usually sewn with threads of lesser strength than the fabric so that if stressed the seam will break before the garment. Heavy goods that must withstand considerable stresses such as upholstery, car seating, tarpaulins, tents, and saddlery require very strong threads. Attempting repairs with light weight thread will usually result in rapid failure, though again, using a thread that is stronger than the material being sewn can end up causing rips in that material before the thread itself gives way.

    Thread material
    Material Description Purpose
    Cotton Spun traditional thread general
    Cotton/polyester A cotton thread with a polyester core which is slightly stretchy but retains the traditional look of cotton strength without sheen
    Fusible Fuses sewn fabrics together when ironed binding and appliqué
    Linen A spun thread, typically in a thicker gauge than that used for fabric garments. It may be waxed for durability and resistance to mildew. Traditional leather saddlery; leather luggage, handbags, and accessories; and beadwork.
    Metallics A delicate metallic coating protected by an outer coating providing extremely vibrant color/glitter and/or texture. decoration
    Nylon A transparent monofillament which can be melted by an iron. Nylon is usually stronger than polyester. strength with transparency
    Polyester A synthetic blend which is stronger and stretchier than cotton with little or no lint (may be texturized) strength
    Rayon Made from cellulose, but not considered to be a natural fibre because it is highly processed. Useful for obtaining bright colors, though not always color-fast. high sheen, soft texture
    Silk A very fine, strong and hard-to-see thread; tends to degrade over time, however. high strength and often high sheen, used for attaching beads
    Wool A thicker thread. homespun look, rougher texture, highly insulating, water absorbent
    Water-soluble Dissolves when washed temporary basting
    [1]

    Polyester/polyester core spun thread is made by wrapping staple polyester around a continuous polyester filament during spinning and plying these yarns into a sewing thread. Core Spun Thread

    Different weights
    Thread gauges
    Yarns are measured by the density of the yarn, which is described by various units of textile measurement relating to a standardized length per weight. These units do not directly correspond to thread diameter.

    Wt and Gunze count
    The most common weight system specifies the length of the thread in kilometres required to weigh 1 kilogram. Therefore, a greater weight number (indicated in the American standard by the abbreviation wt) indicates a thinner, finer thread. The American standard of thread weight was adopted from the Gunze Count standard of Japan which uses two numbers separated by a forward slash. The first number corresponds to the wt number of the thread and the second number indicates how many strands of fiber were used to compose the finished thread. It is common to wrap three strands of the same weight to make one thread, though this is not a formal requirement in the US standard (which is therefore less informative).

    Thread Weight Table
    Weight Gunze Count Common Use[2]
    Light 60 wt #60/3 bobbin or appliqué
    Thin 50 wt #50/3 bobbin or appliqué
    Regular 40 wt #40/3 Quilting
    Upholstery 30 wt #30/3 Decorative
    Heavy 20 wt #20/3 Decorative
    Denier
    A denier weight specification states how many grams 9,000 meters of the thread weighs. Unlike the common thread weight system, the greater the denier number, the thicker the thread. The denier weight system, like the common weight system, also specifies the number of strands of the specified weight which were wrapped together to make the finished thread.

    Tex
    Tex is the mass in grams of 1,000 meters of thread. If 1,000 meters weighs 25 grams, it is a tex 25. Larger tex numbers are heavier threads. Tex is used more commonly in Europe and Canada.

    Aughts
    Some thread manufacturers, especially those producing very fine silk threads, apply their own scales of thread measurement using "aughts" or zeroes (not unlike the zeros used in measuring the sizes of seed beads). Within a given manufacturer's spectrum, a higher "aught count" indicates a finer thread: this is usually given as a single digit followed by a forward slash and a zero— for example, 3/0 indicates a three-aught thread or a thread size "000", but this number only has significance when compared to other threads produced by the same manufacturer: one manufacturer's 4/0 will always be more fine than that same manufacturer's 2/0, but will mean nothing if compared to the 4/0 of another manufacturer. The aught scale therefore is not suitable for conversion or comparison to other more-generalized weight scales, though it is in common use.

    Conversion information
    Thread weight conversion table

    Converting From Converting To Method
    Weight Denier 9000 / weight
    Weight Tex 1000 / weight
    Denier Weight 9000 / denier
    Denier Tex denier / 9
    Tex Denier tex x 9
    Tex Weight 1000 / tex
    For example: 40 weight = 225 denier = Tex 25. A common Tex number for general sewing thread is Tex 25 or Tex 30. A slightly heavier silk buttonhole thread suitable for bartacking, small leather items, and decorative seams might be Tex 40. A strong, durable upholstery thread, Tex 75. A heavy duty topstitching thread for coats, bags, and shoes, Tex 100. A very strong topstitching thread suitable for luggage and tarpaulins, Tex 265-Tex 290. But a fine serging thread, only Tex 13. For blindstitching and felling machines, an even finer Tex 8.

    High-temperature sewing threads
    High temperature sewing threads provide durability and resistance to extreme temperatures. Some threads can be used for applications up to 800 °C (1472 °F). There are a variety of different sewing threads available which have different applications and benefits.

    Kevlar-coated stainless steel sewing threads have a high-temperature and flame-resistant steel core combined with Kevlar coating designed to facilitate easier machine sewing. The stainless steel core has a temperature resistance of up to 800 °C (1472 °F) and the Kevlar coating is heat-resistant up to 220 °C (428 °F).

    PTFE coated glass sewing threads have an excellent temperature resistance combined with a PTFE coating to provide easier machine sewing. The glass core has a temperature resistance of up to 550 °C (1022 °F) and the PTFE coating is heat-resistant up to 230 °C (446 °F).

    Nomex sewing threads are inherently flame-retardant and heat-resistant with a tough protective coating which resists abrasion during the sewing operation. It is temperature resistant up to 370 °C (698 °F).

    Bonded nylon sewing threads are tough, coated with abrasion resistance, rot proofing, and have good tensile strength for lower temperature applications. They are temperature-resistant up to 120 °C (248 °F).

    Bonded polyester sewing threads are tough, coated with abrasion resistance, rotproofing, and have exceptional tensile strength for lower temperatures but heavier-duty sewing operations. They are temperature-resistant up to 120 °C (248 °F).

    See also
    Look up thread in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
    Eisengarn ('iron yarn')
    Hank (textile)
    Sewing needle
    Staple (textiles)
    Stitch (textile arts)
    Notes
    "Thread Tips - Threads for Quilters". Quilting.about.com. 2011-10-16. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
    "How to choose the right thread for your project and your sewing machine". Quiltbug.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
    vte
    Sewing
    Techniques
    Basting Cut Darning Ease Embellishment Fabric tube turning Floating canvas Gather Godet Gusset Heirloom sewing Shirring
    Stitches
    List of sewing stitches Backstitch Bar tack Blanket Blind stitch Buttonhole Catch stitch Chain stitch Cross-stitch Embroidery stitch Hemstitch Lockstitch Overlock Pad stitch Pick stitch Rantering Running Sashiko Stoating Tack Topstitch Zigzag
    Seams
    Neckline Felled seam Seam allowance Style line
    NotionsTrim
    Bias tape Collar stay Elastic Galloon Grommet / Eyelet Interfacing Passementerie Piping Ruffle Rickrack Self-fabric Soutache Twill tape Wrights
    Closures
    Buckle Button Buttonhole Frog Hook-and-eye Hook-and-loop fastener Shank Snap Zipper
    Materials
    Grain / Bias Selvage Textile / Fabric Thread Yarn
    Tools
    Bobbin Dress form Needlecase Needle threader Pattern notcher Pin Pincushion Pinking shears Scissors Seam ripper Sewing gauge Sewing needle Stitching awl Tailor's ham Tape measure Thimble Tracing paper Tracing wheel
    TradesSuppliers
    Cloth merchant Draper Dressmaker Haberdasher Mercer Sewing occupations Tailor
    Sewing machine
    manufacturers
    List of sewing machine brands and companies Barthélemy Thimonnier Bernina International Brother Industries Elias Howe Elna Feiyue Frister & Rossmann Janome Jones Sewing Machine Company Juki Merrow New Home Pfaff Sewmor Singer Tape edge machine Viking / Husqvarna White
    Pattern manufacturers
    Butterick Burda Clothkits McCall's Simplicity
    Media related to Sewing at Wikimedia Commons Blue crocheting thread.jpg Textile arts portal Glossary of terms
    Categories: YarnTextiles
    Navigation menu
    Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inArticleTalkReadEditView historySearch
    Search Wikipedia
    Main page
    Contents
    Featured content
    Current events
    Random article
    Donate to Wikipedia
    Wikipedia store
    Interaction
    Help
    About Wikipedia
    Community portal
    Recent changes
    Contact page
    Tools
    What links here
    Related changes
    Upload file
    Special pages
    Permanent link
    Page information
    Wikidata item
    Cite this page
    Print/export
    Create a book
    Download as PDF
    Printable version
    In other projects
    Wikimedia Commons

    Languages
    Беларуская
    Deutsch
    Español
    हिन्दी
    Polski
    Русский
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    اردو
    20 more
    Edit links
    This page was last edited on 20 March 2019, at 19:21 (UTC).
    Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

    Jute twine here.



    Jute
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigationJump to search
    This article is about the vegetable fiber. For other uses, see Jute (disambiguation).


    A Jute field in Bangladesh.


    Jute rope
    Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus, which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae, and more recently with Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis.[1] "Jute" is the name of the plant or fiber used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth.


    Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers, and second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. It falls into the bast fiber category (fiber collected from bast, the phloem of the plant, sometimes called the "skin") along with kenaf, industrial hemp, flax (linen), ramie, etc. The industrial term for jute fiber is raw jute. The fibers are off-white to brown, and 1–4 metres (3–13 feet) long. Jute is also called the golden fiber for its color and high cash value.




    Contents
    1 Cultivation
    1.1 White jute (Corchorus capsularis)
    1.2 Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius)
    2 History
    3 Production
    4 Genome
    5 Uses
    5.1 Fibers
    5.2 Culinary uses
    5.3 Sonali Bag
    5.4 Other
    6 Features
    7 Cultural significance
    7.1 National symbols
    8 See also
    9 References
    10 Further reading
    11 External links
    Cultivation
    Main article: Jute cultivation


    Jute plants (Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis)
    The jute plant needs a plain alluvial soil and standing water. The suitable climate for growing jute (warm and wet) is offered by the monsoon climate, during the monsoon season. Temperatures from 20˚C to 40˚C and relative humidity of 70%–80% are favourable for successful cultivation. Jute requires 5–8 cm of rainfall weekly, and more during the sowing time. Soft water is necessary for jute production.


    White jute (Corchorus capsularis)
    Historical documents (including Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal in 1590) state that the poor villagers of India used to wear clothes made of jute. The weavers used simple hand spinning wheels and hand looms, and spun cotton yarns as well. History also suggests that Indians, especially Bengalis, used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses. It is highly functional for carrying grains or other agricultural products.


    Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius)
    Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) is a variety thought native to South Asia. It is grown for both fiber and culinary purposes. People use the leaves as an ingredient in a mucilaginous potherb called "molokhiya" (ملوخية, of uncertain etymology). It is popular in some Arabian countries such as Egypt, Jordan, and Syria as a soup-based dish, sometimes with meat over rice or lentils. The Book of Job (chapter 30, verse 4), in the King James translation of the Hebrew Bible מלוח MaLOo-aĤ "salty",[2] mentions this vegetable potherb as "mallow, giving rise to the term Jew's Mallow.[3] It is high in protein, vitamin C, beta-carotene, calcium, and iron.


    Bangladesh and other countries in Southeast Asia, and the South Pacific mainly use jute for its fiber in. Tossa jute fiber is softer, silkier, and stronger than white jute. This variety shows good sustainability in the Ganges Delta climate. Along with white jute, tossa jute has also been cultivated in the soil of Bengal where it is known as paat from the start of the 19th century. Coremantel, Bangladesh, is the largest global producer of the tossa jute variety.


    History
    Jute was used for making textiles in the Indus valley civilization since the 3rd millennium BC[4]. For centuries, jute has been an integral part of the culture of East Bengal and some parts of West Bengal, precisely in the southwest of Bangladesh. Since the seventeenth century the British started trading in jute. During the reign of the British Empire, jute was also used in the military. British jute barons grew rich processing jute and selling manufactured products made from it. Dundee Jute Barons and the British East India Company set up many jute mills in Bengal, and by 1895 jute industries in Bengal overtook the Scottish jute trade. Many Scots emigrated to Bengal to set up jute factories. More than a billion jute sandbags were exported from Bengal to the trenches of World War I, and to the United States south to bag cotton. It was used in the fishing, construction, art and the arms industries. Initially, due to its texture, it could only be processed by hand until someone in Dundee discovered that treating it with whale oil made it machine processable.[5] The industry boomed throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries ("jute weaver" was a recognised trade occupation in the 1900 UK census), but this trade had largely ceased by about 1970 due to the emergence of synthetic fibers. In the 21st century, jute again has become an important export crop around the world, mainly in Bangladesh.


    Production
    Main article: Jute trade


    Jute stems being retted in water to separate the fibers
    The jute fiber comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant. The fibers are first extracted by retting. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. After the retting process, stripping begins; women and children usually do this job. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off, then the workers dig in and grab the fibers from within the jute stem.[6]


    Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides, in contrast to cotton's heavy requirements. Production is concentrated mostly in Bangladesh, as well as India's states of Assam, Bihar, and West Bengal.[7] India is the world's largest producer of jute,[8] but imported approximately 162,000 tonnes[9] of raw fiber and 175,000 tonnes[10] of jute products in 2011. India, Pakistan, and China import significant quantities of jute fiber and products from Bangladesh, as do the United Kingdom, Japan, United States, France, Spain, Ivory Coast, Germany and Brazil.


    Top ten jute producers, by metric ton, as of 2014[11]
    Country Production (Tonnes)
    India 1,968,000
    Bangladesh 1,349,000
    People's Republic of China 29,628
    Uzbekistan 20,000
    Nepal 14,890
    South Sudan 3,300
    Zimbabwe 2,519
    Egypt 2,508
    Brazil 1,172
    Vietnam 970
    World 3,393,248
    Genome
    Main article: Jute genome
    At the beginning of the 21st century, in 2002 Bangladesh commissioned a consortium of researchers from University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI) and private software firm DataSoft Systems Bangladesh Ltd., in collaboration with Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Science Malaysia and University of Hawaii, to research different fibers and hybrid fibers of jute. The draft genome of jute (Corchorus olitorius) was completed.[12]


    Uses
    Making twine, rope, and matting are among its uses.


    In combination with sugar, the possibility of using jute to build aeroplane panels has been considered. [13]


    Jute is in great demand due to its cheapness, softness, length, lustre and uniformity of its fiber. It is called the 'brown paper bag' as it is also the most used product in store for rice, wheat, grains, etc. It is also called the 'golden fiber' due to its versatile nature.


    Fibers


    Jute fabric


    Coffee sacks made of jute.


    Jute fiber is extracted from retted stem of jute plants
    Jute matting is used to prevent flood erosion while natural vegetation becomes established. For this purpose, a natural and biodegradable fiber is essential.


    Jute is the second most important vegetable fiber after cotton due to its versatility.[14] Jute is used chiefly to make cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton, and to make sacks and coarse cloth. The fibers are also woven into curtains, chair coverings, carpets, area rugs, hessian cloth, and backing for linoleum.


    While jute is being replaced by synthetic materials in many of these uses,[citation needed] some uses take advantage of jute's biodegradable nature, where synthetics would be unsuitable. Examples of such uses include containers for planting young trees, which can be planted directly with the container without disturbing the roots, and land restoration where jute cloth prevents erosion occurring while natural vegetation becomes established.


    The fibers are used alone or blended with other types of fiber to make twine and rope. Jute butts, the coarse ends of the plants, are used to make inexpensive cloth. Conversely, very fine threads of jute can be separated out and made into imitation silk. As jute fibers are also being used to make pulp and paper, and with increasing concern over forest destruction for the wood pulp used to make most paper, the importance of jute for this purpose may increase. Jute has a long history of use in the sackings, carpets, wrapping fabrics (cotton bale), and construction fabric manufacturing industry.


    Jute was used in traditional textile machinery as fibers having cellulose (vegetable fiber content) and lignin (wood fiber content). But, the major breakthrough came when the automobile, pulp and paper, and the furniture and bedding industries started to use jute and its allied fibers with their non-woven and composite technology to manufacture nonwovens, technical textiles, and composites. Therefore, jute has changed its textile fiber outlook and steadily heading towards its newer identity, i.e., wood fiber. As a textile fiber, jute has reached its peak from where there is no hope of progress, but as a wood fiber jute has many promising features.[15]


    Jute is used in the manufacture of a number of fabrics, such as Hessian cloth, sacking, scrim, carpet backing cloth (CBC), and canvas. Hessian, lighter than sacking, is used for bags, wrappers, wall-coverings, upholstery, and home furnishings. Sacking, a fabric made of heavy jute fibers, has its use in the name. CBC made of jute comes in two types. Primary CBC provides a tufting surface, while secondary CBC is bonded onto the primary backing for an overlay. Jute packaging is used as an eco-friendly substitute.


    Diversified jute products are becoming more and more valuable to the consumer today. Among these are espadrilles, soft sweaters and cardigans, floor coverings, home textiles, high performance technical textiles, geotextiles, composites, and more.


    Jute floor coverings consist of woven and tufted and piled carpets. Jute mats and mattings with 5/6 mts width and of continuous length are easily being woven in southern parts of India, in solid and fancy shades, and in different weaves, like bouclé, Panama, herringbone, etc. Jute mats and rugs are made both by powerloom and habdloom in large volume in Kerala, India. The traditional Satranji mat is becoming very popular in home décor. Jute non-wovens and composites can be used for underlay, linoleum substrate, and more.


    Jute has many advantages as a home textile, either replacing cotton or blending with it. It is a strong, durable, color and light-fast fiber. Its UV protection, sound and heat insulation, low thermal conduction and anti-static properties make it a wise choice in home décor. Also, fabrics made of jute fibers are carbon-dioxide neutral and naturally decomposable. These properties are also why jute can be used in high performance technical textiles.[6]


    Moreover, jute can be grown in 4–6 months with a huge amount of cellulose being produced from the jute hurd (inner woody core or parenchyma of the jute stem) that can meet most of the wood needs of the world. Jute is the major crop among others that is able to protect deforestation by industrialisation.[clarification needed]


    Thus, jute is the most environment-friendly fiber starting from the seed to expired fiber, as the expired fibers can be recycled more than once.


    Jute is also used to make ghillie suits, which are used as camouflage and resemble grasses or brush.


    Another diversified jute product is geotextiles, which made this agricultural commodity more popular in the agricultural sector. It is a lightly woven fabric made from natural fibers that is used for soil erosion control, seed protection, weed control, and many other agricultural and landscaping uses. The geotextiles can be used more than a year and the bio-degradable jute geotextile left to rot on the ground keeps the ground cool and is able to make the land more fertile.


    Culinary uses
    In Nigeria, leaves of Corchorus olitorius are prepared in sticky soup called ewedu together with ingredients such as sweet potato, dried small fish or shrimp.[16] The leaves are rubbed until foamy or sticky before adding to the soup. Amongst the Yoruba of Nigeria, the leaves are called Ewedu, and in the Hausa-speaking northern Nigeria, the leaves are called turgunuwa or lallo. The cook cuts jute leaves into shreds and adds them to the soup, which normally also contains ingredients such as meat or fish, pepper, onions, and spices. Likewise, the Lugbara of Northwestern Uganda eat the leaves in a soup they call pala bi. Jute is also a totem for Ayivu, one of the Lugbara clans.


    In the Philippines, especially in Ilocano-dominated areas, this vegetable, locally known as saluyot, can be mixed with either bitter gourd, bamboo shoots, loofah, or sometimes all of them. These have a slimy and slippery texture.


    Similarly, the leaves are used in Cypriot cuisine as an ingredient for stews. It is known locally as molohiya. It is typically cooked with lamb or chicken.


    Sonali Bag
    Main article: Sonali Bag
    Sonali Bag is biodegradable and eco-friendly poly bag that made from Jute and invented by Bangladeshi scientist Dr. Mubarak Ahmad Khan.[17][18] The bag named Sonali bag (English: Golden Bag). It is producing experimantaly on Latif Bawani Jute Mill Bangladesh. After a research of 20 years Dr. Mubarak Ahmad Khan invented it. It is recyclable, biodegradable and eco friendly than regular polythene.


    Other


    Jute stalks drying under the sun for use as fuel.
    Diversified byproducts from jute can be used in cosmetics, medicine, paints, and other products.


    Features


    This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
    Find sources: "Jute" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)


    Picture of cutting lower part of the long jute fiber. The lower part is hard fiber, which is called jute cuttings in Bangladesh and India (commonly called jute butts or jute tops elsewhere). Jute cuttings are lower in quality, but have commercial value for the paper, carded yarn, and other fiber processing industries. Jute fibers are kept in bundles in the background in a warehouse in Bangladesh.
    Jute fiber is 100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly.
    Jute has low pesticide and fertilizer needs.
    It is a natural fiber with golden and silky shine and hence called The Golden Fiber.
    It is the cheapest vegetable fiber procured from the bast or skin of the plant's stem.
    It is the second most important vegetable fiber after cotton, in terms of usage, global consumption, production, and availability.
    It has high tensile strength, low extensibility, and ensures better breathability of fabrics. Therefore, jute is very suitable in agricultural commodity bulk packaging.
    It helps to make top quality industrial yarn, fabric, net, and sacks. It is one of the most versatile natural fibers that has been used in raw materials for packaging, textiles, non-textile, construction, and agricultural sectors. Bulking of yarn results in a reduced breaking tenacity and an increased breaking extensibility when blended as a ternary blend.
    The best source of jute in the world is the Bengal Delta Plain in the Ganges Delta, most of which is within the borders of Bangladesh.
    Advantages of jute include good insulating and antistatic properties, as well as having low thermal conductivity and a moderate moisture regain. Other advantages of jute include acoustic insulating properties and manufacture with no skin irritations.
    Jute can be blended with other fibers, both synthetic and natural, and accepts cellulosic dye classes such as natural, basic, vat, sulfur, reactive, and pigment dyes. As demand for natural comfort fibers increases, demand for jute and other natural fibers that can be blended with cotton will increase. To meet this demand, some manufactures in the natural fiber industry plan to modernize processing with the Rieter's Elitex system. Resulting jute/cotton yarns produce fabrics with a reduced cost of wet processing treatments. Jute can also be blended with wool. By treating jute with caustic soda, crimp, softness, pliability, and appearance is improved, aiding in its ability to be spun with wool. Liquid ammonia has a similar effect on jute, as well as the added characteristic of improving flame resistance when treated with flameproofing agents.
    Some noted disadvantages include poor drapability and crease resistance, brittleness, fiber shedding, and yellowing in sunlight. However, preparation of fabrics with castor oil lubricants result in less yellowing and less fabric weight loss, as well as increased dyeing brilliance. Jute has a decreased strength when wet, and also becomes subject to microbial attack in humid climates. Jute can be processed with an enzyme to reduce some of its brittleness and stiffness. Once treated with an enzyme, jute shows an affinity to readily accept natural dyes, which can be made from marigold flower extract. In one attempt to dye jute fabric with this extract, bleached fabric was mordanted with ferrous sulphate, increasing the fabric's dye uptake value. Jute also responds well to reactive dyeing. This process is used for bright and fast coloured value-added diversified products made from jute.
    Cultural significance
    National symbols


    National Emblem of Bangladesh. Above the water lily are four stars and three connected jute leaves.





    State emblem of Pakistan, Jute depicted in the fourth quarter





    Bangladesh Bank monogram, with three connected jute leaves at the base.


    See also
    Cash crop
    International Year of Natural Fibres
    References
    "Plants for a Future", Pfaf.org, retrieved 21 May 2015
    The New Bantam-Megiddo Hebrew & English Dictionary, Sivan and Levenston, Bantam books, NY, 1875
    Chiffolo, Anthony F; Rayner W. Hesse (30 August 2006). Cooking With the Bible: Biblical Food, Feasts, And Lore. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 237. ISBN 9780313334108. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
    "New evidence for jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) in the Indus civilization" (PDF). Harappa.com. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
    "BBC Two - Brian Cox's Jute Journey". BBC. 2010-02-24. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
    "Welcome to the world of Jute and Kenaf - IJSG". Web.archive.org. 26 May 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
    "Office of the Jute Commissioner — Ministry of Textiles". Jutecomm.gov.in. 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
    "Statistics — World production of Jute Fibres from 2004/2005 to 2010/2011". International Jute Study Group (IJSG). 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
    "Statistics — World Import of raw Jute, Kenaf and Allied Fibres". International Jute Study Group (IJSG). 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
    "Statistics — World Imports of Products of Jute, Kenaf and Allied Fibres". International Jute Study Group (IJSG). 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
    "FAOSTAT – Crops" (Query page requires interactive entry in four sections: "Countries"–Select All; "Elements"–Production Quantity; "Items"–Jute; "Years"–2014). Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division. 2017-02-13. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
    "The Jute Genome Project Homepage". Jutegenome.org. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
    "SUGAR AND JUTE AEROPLANE PANELS". Archived from the original on 2015-04-15.
    "What Is Jute Juco — Jutexpo". Jutexpo.co.uk. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
    "Information on Jute, Kenaf, Roselle Hemp, & Natural/Bast Fiber Textile Products - by GFTCL". Exporter-of-jute-products.blogspot.com. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
    AVRDC. Recipes - African Sticky Soup (Ewedu). Retrieved 27 June 2013.
    [1][dead link]
    "BBC News বাংলা". Facebook.com. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
    Further reading
    Basu, G., A. K. Sinha, and S. N. Chattopadhyay. "Properties of Jute Based Ternary Blended Bulked Yarns". Man-Made Textiles in India. Vol. 48, no. 9 (Sep. 2005): 350–353. (AN 18605324)
    Chattopadhyay, S. N., N. C. Pan, and A. Day. "A Novel Process of Dyeing of Jute Fabric Using Reactive Dye". Textile Industry of India. Vol. 42, no. 9 (Sep. 2004): 15–22. (AN 17093709)
    Doraiswamy, I., A. Basu, and K. P. Chellamani. "Development of Fine Quality Jute Fibers". Colourage. Nov. 6–8, 1998, 2p. (AN TDH0624047199903296)
    Kozlowski, R., and S. Manys. "Green Fibers". The Textile Institute. Textile Industry: Winning Strategies for the New Millennium—Papers Presented at the World Conference. Feb. 10–13, 1999: 29 (13p). (AN TDH0646343200106392)
    Madhu, T. "Bio-Composites—An Overview". Textile Magazine. Vol. 43, no. 8 (Jun. 2002): 49 (2 pp). (AN TDH0656367200206816)
    Maulik, S. R. "Chemical Modification of Jute". Asian Textile Journal. Vol. 10, no. 7 (Jul. 2001): 99 (8 pp). (AN TDH0648424200108473)
    Moses, J. Jeyakodi, and M. Ramasamy. "Quality Improvement on Jute and Jute Cotton Materials Using Enzyme Treatment and Natural Dyeing". Man-Made Textiles in India. Vol. 47, no. 7 (Jul. 2004): 252–255. (AN 14075527)
    Pan, N. C., S. N. Chattopadhyay, and A. Day. "Dyeing of Jute Fabric with Natural Dye Extracted from Marigold Flower". Asian Textile Journal. Vol. 13, no. 7 (Jul. 2004): 80–82. (AN 15081016)
    Pan, N. C., A. Day, and K. K. Mahalanabis. "Properties of Jute". Indian Textile Journal. Vol. 110, no. 5 (Feb. 2000): 16. (AN TDH0635236200004885)
    Roy, T. K. G., S. K. Chatterjee, and B. D. Gupta. "Comparative Studies on Bleaching and Dyeing of Jute after Processing with Mineral Oil in Water Emulsion vis-a-vis Self-Emulsifiable Castor Oil". Colourage. Vol. 49, no. 8 (Aug. 2002): 27 (5 pp). (AN TDH0657901200208350)
    Shenai, V. A. "Enzyme Treatment". Indian Textile Journal. Vol. 114, no. 2 (Nov. 2003): 112–113. (AN 13153355)
    Srinivasan, J., A. Venkatachalam, and P. Radhakrishnan. "Small-Scale Jute Spinning: An Analysis". Textile Magazine. Vol. 40, no. 4 (Feb. 1999): 29. (ANTDH0624005199903254)
    Tomlinson, Jim. Carlo Morelli and Valerie Wright. The Decline of Jute: Managing Industrial Decline (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2011) 219 pp. ISBN 978-1-84893-124-4. focus on Dundee, Scotland
    Vijayakumar, K. A., and P. R. Raajendraa. "A New Method to Determine the Proportion of Jute in a Jute/Cotton Blend". Asian Textile Journal, Vol. 14, no. 5 (May 2005): 70-72. (AN 18137355)
    External links
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jute.
    Look up jute in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
    Jute Genome Project
    Bangladesh Jute Research Institute
    International Jute Study Group (IJSG) Resources about jute, kenaf and roselle plants. jute.org
    Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University Some chemistry and medicinal information on tossa jute. purdue.edu
    National Library of Scotland: SCOTTISH SCREEN ARCHIVE (selection of archive films about the jute industry in Dundee)
    Corchorus in West African plants – A Photo Guide.
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  7. Default

    Quote Originally Posted by Suppa Hobbit Mage View Post
    Jute twine here.



    Jute
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigationJump to search
    This article is about the vegetable fiber. For other uses, see Jute (disambiguation).


    A Jute field in Bangladesh.


    Jute rope
    Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus, which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae, and more recently with Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis.[1] "Jute" is the name of the plant or fiber used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth.


    Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers, and second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. It falls into the bast fiber category (fiber collected from bast, the phloem of the plant, sometimes called the "skin") along with kenaf, industrial hemp, flax (linen), ramie, etc. The industrial term for jute fiber is raw jute. The fibers are off-white to brown, and 1–4 metres (3–13 feet) long. Jute is also called the golden fiber for its color and high cash value.




    Contents
    1 Cultivation
    1.1 White jute (Corchorus capsularis)
    1.2 Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius)
    2 History
    3 Production
    4 Genome
    5 Uses
    5.1 Fibers
    5.2 Culinary uses
    5.3 Sonali Bag
    5.4 Other
    6 Features
    7 Cultural significance
    7.1 National symbols
    8 See also
    9 References
    10 Further reading
    11 External links
    Cultivation
    Main article: Jute cultivation


    Jute plants (Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis)
    The jute plant needs a plain alluvial soil and standing water. The suitable climate for growing jute (warm and wet) is offered by the monsoon climate, during the monsoon season. Temperatures from 20˚C to 40˚C and relative humidity of 70%–80% are favourable for successful cultivation. Jute requires 5–8 cm of rainfall weekly, and more during the sowing time. Soft water is necessary for jute production.


    White jute (Corchorus capsularis)
    Historical documents (including Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal in 1590) state that the poor villagers of India used to wear clothes made of jute. The weavers used simple hand spinning wheels and hand looms, and spun cotton yarns as well. History also suggests that Indians, especially Bengalis, used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses. It is highly functional for carrying grains or other agricultural products.


    Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius)
    Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) is a variety thought native to South Asia. It is grown for both fiber and culinary purposes. People use the leaves as an ingredient in a mucilaginous potherb called "molokhiya" (ملوخية, of uncertain etymology). It is popular in some Arabian countries such as Egypt, Jordan, and Syria as a soup-based dish, sometimes with meat over rice or lentils. The Book of Job (chapter 30, verse 4), in the King James translation of the Hebrew Bible מלוח MaLOo-aĤ "salty",[2] mentions this vegetable potherb as "mallow, giving rise to the term Jew's Mallow.[3] It is high in protein, vitamin C, beta-carotene, calcium, and iron.


    Bangladesh and other countries in Southeast Asia, and the South Pacific mainly use jute for its fiber in. Tossa jute fiber is softer, silkier, and stronger than white jute. This variety shows good sustainability in the Ganges Delta climate. Along with white jute, tossa jute has also been cultivated in the soil of Bengal where it is known as paat from the start of the 19th century. Coremantel, Bangladesh, is the largest global producer of the tossa jute variety.


    History
    Jute was used for making textiles in the Indus valley civilization since the 3rd millennium BC[4]. For centuries, jute has been an integral part of the culture of East Bengal and some parts of West Bengal, precisely in the southwest of Bangladesh. Since the seventeenth century the British started trading in jute. During the reign of the British Empire, jute was also used in the military. British jute barons grew rich processing jute and selling manufactured products made from it. Dundee Jute Barons and the British East India Company set up many jute mills in Bengal, and by 1895 jute industries in Bengal overtook the Scottish jute trade. Many Scots emigrated to Bengal to set up jute factories. More than a billion jute sandbags were exported from Bengal to the trenches of World War I, and to the United States south to bag cotton. It was used in the fishing, construction, art and the arms industries. Initially, due to its texture, it could only be processed by hand until someone in Dundee discovered that treating it with whale oil made it machine processable.[5] The industry boomed throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries ("jute weaver" was a recognised trade occupation in the 1900 UK census), but this trade had largely ceased by about 1970 due to the emergence of synthetic fibers. In the 21st century, jute again has become an important export crop around the world, mainly in Bangladesh.


    Production
    Main article: Jute trade


    Jute stems being retted in water to separate the fibers
    The jute fiber comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant. The fibers are first extracted by retting. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. After the retting process, stripping begins; women and children usually do this job. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off, then the workers dig in and grab the fibers from within the jute stem.[6]


    Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides, in contrast to cotton's heavy requirements. Production is concentrated mostly in Bangladesh, as well as India's states of Assam, Bihar, and West Bengal.[7] India is the world's largest producer of jute,[8] but imported approximately 162,000 tonnes[9] of raw fiber and 175,000 tonnes[10] of jute products in 2011. India, Pakistan, and China import significant quantities of jute fiber and products from Bangladesh, as do the United Kingdom, Japan, United States, France, Spain, Ivory Coast, Germany and Brazil.


    Top ten jute producers, by metric ton, as of 2014[11]
    Country Production (Tonnes)
    India 1,968,000
    Bangladesh 1,349,000
    People's Republic of China 29,628
    Uzbekistan 20,000
    Nepal 14,890
    South Sudan 3,300
    Zimbabwe 2,519
    Egypt 2,508
    Brazil 1,172
    Vietnam 970
    World 3,393,248
    Genome
    Main article: Jute genome
    At the beginning of the 21st century, in 2002 Bangladesh commissioned a consortium of researchers from University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI) and private software firm DataSoft Systems Bangladesh Ltd., in collaboration with Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Science Malaysia and University of Hawaii, to research different fibers and hybrid fibers of jute. The draft genome of jute (Corchorus olitorius) was completed.[12]


    Uses
    Making twine, rope, and matting are among its uses.


    In combination with sugar, the possibility of using jute to build aeroplane panels has been considered. [13]


    Jute is in great demand due to its cheapness, softness, length, lustre and uniformity of its fiber. It is called the 'brown paper bag' as it is also the most used product in store for rice, wheat, grains, etc. It is also called the 'golden fiber' due to its versatile nature.


    Fibers


    Jute fabric


    Coffee sacks made of jute.


    Jute fiber is extracted from retted stem of jute plants
    Jute matting is used to prevent flood erosion while natural vegetation becomes established. For this purpose, a natural and biodegradable fiber is essential.


    Jute is the second most important vegetable fiber after cotton due to its versatility.[14] Jute is used chiefly to make cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton, and to make sacks and coarse cloth. The fibers are also woven into curtains, chair coverings, carpets, area rugs, hessian cloth, and backing for linoleum.


    While jute is being replaced by synthetic materials in many of these uses,[citation needed] some uses take advantage of jute's biodegradable nature, where synthetics would be unsuitable. Examples of such uses include containers for planting young trees, which can be planted directly with the container without disturbing the roots, and land restoration where jute cloth prevents erosion occurring while natural vegetation becomes established.


    The fibers are used alone or blended with other types of fiber to make twine and rope. Jute butts, the coarse ends of the plants, are used to make inexpensive cloth. Conversely, very fine threads of jute can be separated out and made into imitation silk. As jute fibers are also being used to make pulp and paper, and with increasing concern over forest destruction for the wood pulp used to make most paper, the importance of jute for this purpose may increase. Jute has a long history of use in the sackings, carpets, wrapping fabrics (cotton bale), and construction fabric manufacturing industry.


    Jute was used in traditional textile machinery as fibers having cellulose (vegetable fiber content) and lignin (wood fiber content). But, the major breakthrough came when the automobile, pulp and paper, and the furniture and bedding industries started to use jute and its allied fibers with their non-woven and composite technology to manufacture nonwovens, technical textiles, and composites. Therefore, jute has changed its textile fiber outlook and steadily heading towards its newer identity, i.e., wood fiber. As a textile fiber, jute has reached its peak from where there is no hope of progress, but as a wood fiber jute has many promising features.[15]


    Jute is used in the manufacture of a number of fabrics, such as Hessian cloth, sacking, scrim, carpet backing cloth (CBC), and canvas. Hessian, lighter than sacking, is used for bags, wrappers, wall-coverings, upholstery, and home furnishings. Sacking, a fabric made of heavy jute fibers, has its use in the name. CBC made of jute comes in two types. Primary CBC provides a tufting surface, while secondary CBC is bonded onto the primary backing for an overlay. Jute packaging is used as an eco-friendly substitute.


    Diversified jute products are becoming more and more valuable to the consumer today. Among these are espadrilles, soft sweaters and cardigans, floor coverings, home textiles, high performance technical textiles, geotextiles, composites, and more.


    Jute floor coverings consist of woven and tufted and piled carpets. Jute mats and mattings with 5/6 mts width and of continuous length are easily being woven in southern parts of India, in solid and fancy shades, and in different weaves, like bouclé, Panama, herringbone, etc. Jute mats and rugs are made both by powerloom and habdloom in large volume in Kerala, India. The traditional Satranji mat is becoming very popular in home décor. Jute non-wovens and composites can be used for underlay, linoleum substrate, and more.


    Jute has many advantages as a home textile, either replacing cotton or blending with it. It is a strong, durable, color and light-fast fiber. Its UV protection, sound and heat insulation, low thermal conduction and anti-static properties make it a wise choice in home décor. Also, fabrics made of jute fibers are carbon-dioxide neutral and naturally decomposable. These properties are also why jute can be used in high performance technical textiles.[6]


    Moreover, jute can be grown in 4–6 months with a huge amount of cellulose being produced from the jute hurd (inner woody core or parenchyma of the jute stem) that can meet most of the wood needs of the world. Jute is the major crop among others that is able to protect deforestation by industrialisation.[clarification needed]


    Thus, jute is the most environment-friendly fiber starting from the seed to expired fiber, as the expired fibers can be recycled more than once.


    Jute is also used to make ghillie suits, which are used as camouflage and resemble grasses or brush.


    Another diversified jute product is geotextiles, which made this agricultural commodity more popular in the agricultural sector. It is a lightly woven fabric made from natural fibers that is used for soil erosion control, seed protection, weed control, and many other agricultural and landscaping uses. The geotextiles can be used more than a year and the bio-degradable jute geotextile left to rot on the ground keeps the ground cool and is able to make the land more fertile.


    Culinary uses
    In Nigeria, leaves of Corchorus olitorius are prepared in sticky soup called ewedu together with ingredients such as sweet potato, dried small fish or shrimp.[16] The leaves are rubbed until foamy or sticky before adding to the soup. Amongst the Yoruba of Nigeria, the leaves are called Ewedu, and in the Hausa-speaking northern Nigeria, the leaves are called turgunuwa or lallo. The cook cuts jute leaves into shreds and adds them to the soup, which normally also contains ingredients such as meat or fish, pepper, onions, and spices. Likewise, the Lugbara of Northwestern Uganda eat the leaves in a soup they call pala bi. Jute is also a totem for Ayivu, one of the Lugbara clans.


    In the Philippines, especially in Ilocano-dominated areas, this vegetable, locally known as saluyot, can be mixed with either bitter gourd, bamboo shoots, loofah, or sometimes all of them. These have a slimy and slippery texture.


    Similarly, the leaves are used in Cypriot cuisine as an ingredient for stews. It is known locally as molohiya. It is typically cooked with lamb or chicken.


    Sonali Bag
    Main article: Sonali Bag
    Sonali Bag is biodegradable and eco-friendly poly bag that made from Jute and invented by Bangladeshi scientist Dr. Mubarak Ahmad Khan.[17][18] The bag named Sonali bag (English: Golden Bag). It is producing experimantaly on Latif Bawani Jute Mill Bangladesh. After a research of 20 years Dr. Mubarak Ahmad Khan invented it. It is recyclable, biodegradable and eco friendly than regular polythene.


    Other


    Jute stalks drying under the sun for use as fuel.
    Diversified byproducts from jute can be used in cosmetics, medicine, paints, and other products.


    Features


    This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
    Find sources: "Jute" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)


    Picture of cutting lower part of the long jute fiber. The lower part is hard fiber, which is called jute cuttings in Bangladesh and India (commonly called jute butts or jute tops elsewhere). Jute cuttings are lower in quality, but have commercial value for the paper, carded yarn, and other fiber processing industries. Jute fibers are kept in bundles in the background in a warehouse in Bangladesh.
    Jute fiber is 100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly.
    Jute has low pesticide and fertilizer needs.
    It is a natural fiber with golden and silky shine and hence called The Golden Fiber.
    It is the cheapest vegetable fiber procured from the bast or skin of the plant's stem.
    It is the second most important vegetable fiber after cotton, in terms of usage, global consumption, production, and availability.
    It has high tensile strength, low extensibility, and ensures better breathability of fabrics. Therefore, jute is very suitable in agricultural commodity bulk packaging.
    It helps to make top quality industrial yarn, fabric, net, and sacks. It is one of the most versatile natural fibers that has been used in raw materials for packaging, textiles, non-textile, construction, and agricultural sectors. Bulking of yarn results in a reduced breaking tenacity and an increased breaking extensibility when blended as a ternary blend.
    The best source of jute in the world is the Bengal Delta Plain in the Ganges Delta, most of which is within the borders of Bangladesh.
    Advantages of jute include good insulating and antistatic properties, as well as having low thermal conductivity and a moderate moisture regain. Other advantages of jute include acoustic insulating properties and manufacture with no skin irritations.
    Jute can be blended with other fibers, both synthetic and natural, and accepts cellulosic dye classes such as natural, basic, vat, sulfur, reactive, and pigment dyes. As demand for natural comfort fibers increases, demand for jute and other natural fibers that can be blended with cotton will increase. To meet this demand, some manufactures in the natural fiber industry plan to modernize processing with the Rieter's Elitex system. Resulting jute/cotton yarns produce fabrics with a reduced cost of wet processing treatments. Jute can also be blended with wool. By treating jute with caustic soda, crimp, softness, pliability, and appearance is improved, aiding in its ability to be spun with wool. Liquid ammonia has a similar effect on jute, as well as the added characteristic of improving flame resistance when treated with flameproofing agents.
    Some noted disadvantages include poor drapability and crease resistance, brittleness, fiber shedding, and yellowing in sunlight. However, preparation of fabrics with castor oil lubricants result in less yellowing and less fabric weight loss, as well as increased dyeing brilliance. Jute has a decreased strength when wet, and also becomes subject to microbial attack in humid climates. Jute can be processed with an enzyme to reduce some of its brittleness and stiffness. Once treated with an enzyme, jute shows an affinity to readily accept natural dyes, which can be made from marigold flower extract. In one attempt to dye jute fabric with this extract, bleached fabric was mordanted with ferrous sulphate, increasing the fabric's dye uptake value. Jute also responds well to reactive dyeing. This process is used for bright and fast coloured value-added diversified products made from jute.
    Cultural significance
    National symbols


    National Emblem of Bangladesh. Above the water lily are four stars and three connected jute leaves.





    State emblem of Pakistan, Jute depicted in the fourth quarter





    Bangladesh Bank monogram, with three connected jute leaves at the base.


    See also
    Cash crop
    International Year of Natural Fibres
    References
    "Plants for a Future", Pfaf.org, retrieved 21 May 2015
    The New Bantam-Megiddo Hebrew & English Dictionary, Sivan and Levenston, Bantam books, NY, 1875
    Chiffolo, Anthony F; Rayner W. Hesse (30 August 2006). Cooking With the Bible: Biblical Food, Feasts, And Lore. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 237. ISBN 9780313334108. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
    "New evidence for jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) in the Indus civilization" (PDF). Harappa.com. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
    "BBC Two - Brian Cox's Jute Journey". BBC. 2010-02-24. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
    "Welcome to the world of Jute and Kenaf - IJSG". Web.archive.org. 26 May 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
    "Office of the Jute Commissioner — Ministry of Textiles". Jutecomm.gov.in. 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
    "Statistics — World production of Jute Fibres from 2004/2005 to 2010/2011". International Jute Study Group (IJSG). 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
    "Statistics — World Import of raw Jute, Kenaf and Allied Fibres". International Jute Study Group (IJSG). 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
    "Statistics — World Imports of Products of Jute, Kenaf and Allied Fibres". International Jute Study Group (IJSG). 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
    "FAOSTAT – Crops" (Query page requires interactive entry in four sections: "Countries"–Select All; "Elements"–Production Quantity; "Items"–Jute; "Years"–2014). Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division. 2017-02-13. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
    "The Jute Genome Project Homepage". Jutegenome.org. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
    "SUGAR AND JUTE AEROPLANE PANELS". Archived from the original on 2015-04-15.
    "What Is Jute Juco — Jutexpo". Jutexpo.co.uk. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
    "Information on Jute, Kenaf, Roselle Hemp, & Natural/Bast Fiber Textile Products - by GFTCL". Exporter-of-jute-products.blogspot.com. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
    AVRDC. Recipes - African Sticky Soup (Ewedu). Retrieved 27 June 2013.
    [1][dead link]
    "BBC News বাংলা". Facebook.com. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
    Further reading
    Basu, G., A. K. Sinha, and S. N. Chattopadhyay. "Properties of Jute Based Ternary Blended Bulked Yarns". Man-Made Textiles in India. Vol. 48, no. 9 (Sep. 2005): 350–353. (AN 18605324)
    Chattopadhyay, S. N., N. C. Pan, and A. Day. "A Novel Process of Dyeing of Jute Fabric Using Reactive Dye". Textile Industry of India. Vol. 42, no. 9 (Sep. 2004): 15–22. (AN 17093709)
    Doraiswamy, I., A. Basu, and K. P. Chellamani. "Development of Fine Quality Jute Fibers". Colourage. Nov. 6–8, 1998, 2p. (AN TDH0624047199903296)
    Kozlowski, R., and S. Manys. "Green Fibers". The Textile Institute. Textile Industry: Winning Strategies for the New Millennium—Papers Presented at the World Conference. Feb. 10–13, 1999: 29 (13p). (AN TDH0646343200106392)
    Madhu, T. "Bio-Composites—An Overview". Textile Magazine. Vol. 43, no. 8 (Jun. 2002): 49 (2 pp). (AN TDH0656367200206816)
    Maulik, S. R. "Chemical Modification of Jute". Asian Textile Journal. Vol. 10, no. 7 (Jul. 2001): 99 (8 pp). (AN TDH0648424200108473)
    Moses, J. Jeyakodi, and M. Ramasamy. "Quality Improvement on Jute and Jute Cotton Materials Using Enzyme Treatment and Natural Dyeing". Man-Made Textiles in India. Vol. 47, no. 7 (Jul. 2004): 252–255. (AN 14075527)
    Pan, N. C., S. N. Chattopadhyay, and A. Day. "Dyeing of Jute Fabric with Natural Dye Extracted from Marigold Flower". Asian Textile Journal. Vol. 13, no. 7 (Jul. 2004): 80–82. (AN 15081016)
    Pan, N. C., A. Day, and K. K. Mahalanabis. "Properties of Jute". Indian Textile Journal. Vol. 110, no. 5 (Feb. 2000): 16. (AN TDH0635236200004885)
    Roy, T. K. G., S. K. Chatterjee, and B. D. Gupta. "Comparative Studies on Bleaching and Dyeing of Jute after Processing with Mineral Oil in Water Emulsion vis-a-vis Self-Emulsifiable Castor Oil". Colourage. Vol. 49, no. 8 (Aug. 2002): 27 (5 pp). (AN TDH0657901200208350)
    Shenai, V. A. "Enzyme Treatment". Indian Textile Journal. Vol. 114, no. 2 (Nov. 2003): 112–113. (AN 13153355)
    Srinivasan, J., A. Venkatachalam, and P. Radhakrishnan. "Small-Scale Jute Spinning: An Analysis". Textile Magazine. Vol. 40, no. 4 (Feb. 1999): 29. (ANTDH0624005199903254)
    Tomlinson, Jim. Carlo Morelli and Valerie Wright. The Decline of Jute: Managing Industrial Decline (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2011) 219 pp. ISBN 978-1-84893-124-4. focus on Dundee, Scotland
    Vijayakumar, K. A., and P. R. Raajendraa. "A New Method to Determine the Proportion of Jute in a Jute/Cotton Blend". Asian Textile Journal, Vol. 14, no. 5 (May 2005): 70-72. (AN 18137355)
    External links
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jute.
    Look up jute in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
    Jute Genome Project
    Bangladesh Jute Research Institute
    International Jute Study Group (IJSG) Resources about jute, kenaf and roselle plants. jute.org
    Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University Some chemistry and medicinal information on tossa jute. purdue.edu
    National Library of Scotland: SCOTTISH SCREEN ARCHIVE (selection of archive films about the jute industry in Dundee)
    Corchorus in West African plants – A Photo Guide.
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    I understand but you keep bowling out of this thread, you DAMN trouble maker





    Bowling
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


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    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
    Find sources: "Bowling" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
    This article is about bowling in general.
    For specific types of bowling, see Ten-pin bowling, Duckpin bowling, Candlepin bowling, Nine-pin bowling, and Five-pin bowling.
    For other uses of the term, see Bowling (disambiguation)


    A ten-pin bowler releases his bowling ball


    Playing bowls at Tiverton West End Bowling Club, United Kingdom


    Relative sizes of bowling balls and pins for three popular variations of the game. Scale: the horizontal blue lines are one inch apart vertically.
    Bowling is a target sport and recreational activity in which a player rolls or throws a bowling ball toward pins (in pin bowling) or another target (in target bowling).
    In pin bowling, the goal is to knock over pins at the end of a lane, with either two or three balls per frame allowed to knock down all pins. A strike is achieved when all the pins are knocked down on the first roll, and a spare is achieved if all the pins are knocked over on a second roll (or, if applicable, on a third roll).
    Lanes have wood or synthetic surfaces onto which protective lubricating oil is applied in different specified oil patterns that vary ball path characteristics. Common types of pin bowling include ten-pin, candlepin, duckpin, nine-pin, and five-pin bowling.
    In target bowling, the aim is usually to get the ball as close to a mark as possible. The surface in target bowling may be grass, gravel, or synthetic.[1] Bowls, skittles, kegel, bocce, carpet bowls, pétanque, and boules may have both indoor and outdoor varieties.
    Bowling is played by 100 million people in more than 90 countries (including 70 million in the United States),[2] and is the subject of video games.
    In the U.S. and Canada, the term bowling usually refers to ten-pin bowling, whereas in the U.K. and Commonwealth countries the term often denotes lawn bowls.

    Contents
    1
    History
    1.1
    Ancient history
    1.2
    Post-classical history
    1.3
    Modern history
    1.3.1
    In the 16th to 18th centuries
    1.3.2
    In the 19th century
    1.3.3
    In the 20th century
    1.3.4
    In the 21st century
    2
    Variations
    2.1
    Pin bowling
    2.2
    Target bowling
    3
    Accessibility
    4
    In popular culture
    4.1
    With notable individuals
    4.1.1
    U.S. Presidents
    4.2
    Paintings
    5
    See also
    6
    References
    7
    External links
    History[edit]
    Ancient history[edit]
    The earliest known forms of bowling date back to ancient Egypt,[3] with wall drawings depicting bowling being found in a royal Egyptian tomb dated to 5200 B.C.[4] and miniature pins and balls in an Egyptian child's grave about 5200 B.C.[5] Remnants of bowling balls were found among artifacts in ancient Egypt going back to the Egyptian protodynastic period in 3200 BC.[6] Balls were made using the husks of grains, covered in a material such as leather, and bound with string. Other balls made of porcelain have also been found, indicating that these were rolled along the ground rather than thrown due to their size and weight.[6] Some of these resemble the modern day jack used in target bowl games. Bowling games of different forms are also noted by Herodotus as an invention of the Lydians in Asia Minor.[7]
    About 2,000 years ago, in the Roman Empire, a similar game evolved between Roman legionaries entailing the tossing of stone objects as close as possible to other stone objects, which eventually evolved into Italian Bocce, or outdoor bowling.[8]
    Around 400 AD, bowling began in Germany as a religious ritual to cleanse oneself from sin by rolling a rock into a club (kegel) representing the heathen, resulting in bowlers being called keglers.[9]
    Post-classical history[edit]
    In 1299, the oldest-surviving known bowling green for target style bowling was built: Master's Close (now the Old Bowling Green of the Southampton Bowling Club) in Southampton, England, which is still in use.[10]
    In 1325, laws were passed in Berlin and Cologne that limited bets on lawn bowling to five shillings.[9]
    In 1366, the first official mention of bowling in England was made, when King Edward III banned it as a distraction to archery practice.[11]
    In the 15th-17th centuries, lawn bowling spread from Germany into Austria, Switzerland, and the Low Countries, with playing surfaces made of cinders or baked clay.[9]
    In 1455, lawn bowling lanes in London were first roofed-over, turning bowling into an all-weather game.[9] In Germany, they were called kegelbahns, and were often attached to taverns and guest houses.
    In 1463, a public feast was held in Frankfurt, Germany, with a venison dinner followed by lawn bowling.[9]
    Modern history[edit]
    In the 16th to 18th centuries[edit]


    Peasants bowling in front of a tavern in the 17th century
    In 1511 English King Henry VIII was an avid bowler. He banned bowling for the lower classes and imposed a levy for private lanes to limit them to the wealthy.[12] Another English law, passed in 1541 (repealed in 1845), prohibited workers from bowling, except at Christmas, and only in their master's home and in his presence. In 1530 he acquired Whitehall Palace in central London as his new residence, having it extensively rebuilt complete with outdoor bowling lanes, indoor tennis court, jousting tiltyard, and cockfighting pit.
    Protestant Reformation founder Martin Luther set the number of pins (which varied from 3 to 17) at nine.[citation needed] He had a bowling lane built next to his home for his children, sometimes rolling a ball himself.[9]
    On 19 July 1588 English Vice-Admiral Sir Francis Drake allegedly was playing bowls at Plymouth Hoe when the arrival of the Spanish Armada was announced, replying "We have time enough to finish the game and beat the Spaniards too."[13]


    The Bowling Game, by Dutch painter Jan Steen, c. 1655. Many Dutch Golden Age paintings depicted bowling.
    In 1609 Dutch East India Company explorer Henry Hudson discovered Hudson Bay, bringing Dutch colonization to New Amsterdam (later New York); Hudson's men brought some form of lawn bowling with them.[9]
    In 1617 English King James I published Declaration of Sports, banning bowling on Sundays but permitting dancing and archery for those first attending an Anglican service, outraging Puritans; it was reissued in 1633 by his successor Charles I, then ordered publicly burned in 1643 by the Puritan Parliament.
    In 1670 Dutchmen liked to bowl at the Old King’s Arms Tavern near modern-day 2nd and Broadway in New York City.[14]
    In 1733 Bowling Green in New York City was built on the site of a Dutch cattle market and parade ground, becoming the city's oldest public park to survive to modern times.
    In the 19th century[edit]
    A painting from around 1810 shows British bowlers playing a bowling sport outdoors. It shows a triangular formation of ten pins chronologically before it appeared in the United States.[15]
    In 1819, New York writer Washington Irving made the first mention of ninepin bowling in American literature in his story Rip Van Winkle.
    On 1 January 1840, Knickerbocker Alleys in New York City opened, becoming the first indoor bowling alley.[16]
    In 1841, the state of Connecticut banned nine-pin bowling to stop gambling, causing ten-pin bowling to be created to get around the law[3] — some 31 years after the aforementioned British outdoor ten-pin bowling painting was dated.


    A tongue-in-cheek illustration of a bowling alley, from the cover of Harpers Weekly magazine (U.S., 1860)
    In 1846, the oldest surviving bowling lanes in the United States were built as part of Roseland Cottage, the summer estate of Henry Chandler Bowen (1831-1896) in Woodstock, Connecticut. The lanes, now part of Historic New England's Roseland Cottage House Museum contain Gothic Revival architectural elements in keeping with the style of the entire estate.[17]
    In 1848, the Revolutions of 1848 resulted in accelerated German immigration to the U.S., reaching 5 million by 1900, bringing their love of beer and bowling with them; by the late 19th century they made New York City a center of bowling.
    In 1848, the Scottish Bowling Association for lawn bowling was founded in Scotland by 200 clubs; it was dissolved then refounded in 1892.
    In 1864, Glasgow cotton merchant William Wallace Mitchell (1803–84) published Manual of Bowls Playing, which became a standard reference for lawn bowling in Scotland.[18]
    In 1875, the National Bowling Association (NBA) was founded by 27 local clubs in New York City to standardize rules for ten-pin bowling, setting the ball size and the distance between the foul line and the pins, but failing to agree on other rules; it was superseded in 1895 by the American Bowling Congress.[19]
    In 1880, Justin White of Worcester, Massachusetts invented Candlepin Bowling.
    In the 1880s, Brunswick Corporation (founded 1845) of Chicago, Illinois, maker of billiard tables began making bowling balls, pins, and wooden lanes to sell to taverns installing bowling alleys.


    Palace Bowling Alleys in the Music Hall in Pawtucket Rhode Island, circa 1895.[20]
    On 9 September 1895, the modern standardized rules for ten-pin bowling were established in New York City by the new American Bowling Congress (ABC) (later the United States Bowling Congress), who changed the scoring system from a maximum 200 points for 20 balls to a maximum 300 points for 12 balls, and set the maximum ball weight at 16 lbs., and pin distance at 12 inches. The first ABC champion (1906-1921) was Jimmy Smith (1885-1948).[21] In 1927 Mrs. Floretta "Doty" McCutcheon (1888-1967) defeated Smith in an exhibition match, founding a school that taught 500,000 women how to bowl.[22][23][24] In 1993 women were allowed to join the ABC. In 2005 the ABC merged with the Women's International Bowling Congress (WIBC) et al. to become the United States Bowling Congress (USBC).
    In the early 1890s, Duckpin bowling was invented in Boston, Massachusetts, spreading to Baltimore, Maryland about 1899.
    In the 20th century[edit]
    In 1903, the English Bowling Association was founded by cricketer W. G. Grace. On 1 January 2008, it merged with the English Women's Bowling Association to become Bowls England.


    An early bowling tournament (1905; American Bowling Congress; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.)
    In 1903, D. Peifer of Chicago, Illinois invented a handicap method for bowling.[25]
    In 1905, Rubber Duckpin bowling was invented by Willam Wuerthele of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, catching on in Quebec, Canada.
    The ABC initially used bowling balls made of Lignum vitae hardwood from the Caribbean, which were eventually supplanted by the Ebonite rubber bowling ball in 1905 and the Brunswick Mineralite rubber ball in 1914.[26] Columbia Industries, founded in 1960, was the first manufacturer to successfully use polyester resin ("plastic") in bowling balls.[27] In 1980, urethane-shell bowling balls were introduced by Ebonite.
    Rules for target bowls evolved separately in each of the other countries that adopted the predominantly British game. In 1905, the International Bowling Board was formed;[28] its constitution adopted the laws of the Scottish Bowling Association, with variations allowed at the individual country level.[29]
    In September of 1907, the Victorian Ladies' Bowling Association was founded in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, becoming the world's first women's lawn bowling association.
    In 1908, the now-oldest surviving bowling alley for the tenpin sport was opened in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the basement of the Holler House tavern, containing the oldest sanctioned lanes in the United States.
    In 1909, the first ten-pin bowling alley in Europe was installed in Sweden, but the game failed to catch on in the rest of Europe until after World War II. Meanwhile, ten-pin bowling caught on in Great Britain after hundreds of bowling lanes were installed on U.S. military bases during World War II.[9]
    In 1913, the monthly Bowlers Journal was founded in Chicago, Illinois, continuing to publish to the present day.
    In late 1916, the Women's International Bowling Congress (originally the Woman's National Bowling Association) was founded in Saint Louis, Missouri, merging with the United States Bowling Congress in 2005.


    Side-by-side duckpin and ten-pin bowling lanes. The duckpin ball has no finger holes, whereas the ten-pin bowling balls of the day (photo circa 1919) had only a single finger hole in addition to a thumb hole.
    In 1920-1933 Prohibition in the U.S. caused bowling alleys to disassociate from saloons, turning bowling into a family game and encouraging women bowlers.[24]
    On 2 October, 1921, the annual Petersen Open Bowling Tournament (a.k.a. The Pete) was first held in Chicago, Illinois, becoming bowling's richest tournament of the day. In 1998, it was taken over by AMF.[30]
    In 1926, the International Bowling Association (IBA) was formed by the United States, Sweden, Germany, Netherlands, and Finland, holding four world championships by 1936.[9]
    On 21 March, 1934, the National Bowling Writers Association was founded in Peoria, Illinois, by four bowling journalists; it changed its name in 1953 to the Bowling Writers Association of America.[31]
    In August of 1939, the National Negro Bowling Association was founded in Detroit, Michigan, dropping Negro from the title in 1944 and opening membership to all races. It reached 30,000 members in 2007.[32]
    In 1947, the Australian Women's Bowling Council was founded. It held the first Australian women's national lawn bowling championship in Sydney in 1949, which was won by Mrs. R. Cranley of Queensland.
    On 18 April, 1948, the Professional Women Bowling Writers (PWBW) was founded in Dallas, Texas, admitting men in 1975. On 1 January, 2007, it merged with the Bowling Writers Association of America.[33]
    In 1950, following extensive lobbying by civil rights groups in the wake of the 1947 integration of Major League Baseball, the American Bowling Congress opened its membership to African Americans and other minorities.[34] The WIBC followed suit the following year.[32]
    About 1950, the Golden Age of Ten-Pin Bowling began, in which professional bowlers made salaries rivaling those of baseball, football, and hockey players; this ended in the late 1970s.
    In 1951, the first ABC Masters tournament was held, becoming one of the four majors by 2000.
    In 1952, the Fédération Internationale des Quilleurs (FIQ) was founded in Hamburg, Germany, to coordinate international amateur competition in nine-pin and ten-pin bowling. In 1954, the first FIQ World Bowling Championships were held in Helsinki, Finland. In 1979, the International Olympic Committee recognized it as the official world governing body for bowling. It changed its name to World Bowling in 2014.
    In 1952, American Machine and Foundry (AMF) of Brooklyn, N.Y., began marketing automatic Pinsetter machines. This eliminated the need for pinboys and caused bowling to rocket in popularity, making the 1950s the Decade of the Bowler.
    In 1954, Steve Nagy (1913-1966) became the first person to bowl a perfect 300 game on TV on NBC-TV's "Championship Bowling".[35][36] The PBA later named its sportsmanship award after him.

    Dick Weber (1986)

    Earl Anthony (1979)

    Buzz Fazio (1965)
    In 1958, the Professional Bowlers Association (PBA) was founded in Akron, Ohio by 33 prominent bowlers (including Don Carter, Dick Weber, Dick Hoover, Buzz Fazio, Billy Welu, Carmen Salvino and Glenn Allison) after they listened to a presentation by sports agent Eddie Elias. The PBA eventually reached about 4,300 members in 14 countries worldwide. In 1975, Earl Anthony became the first PBA member with $100,000 yearly earnings, and the first to reach $1,000,000 total earnings in 1982. In 2000, it was purchased by former executives of Microsoft, who moved the PBA headquarters to Seattle, Washington.
    On 28 November, 1960, the first PBA Championship in Memphis, Tennessee was won by Don Carter. It was renamed the PBA World Championship in 2002, and now awarded the Earl Anthony Trophy to the winner.
    In 1960, the Professional Women's Bowling Association (PWBA) was founded as the first professional women's bowling association; it went defunct in 2003.
    In 1960, the National Bowling League (NBL) was founded to compete with the PBA. It attracted name players such as Billy Welu and Buzz Fazio, but failed to sign top star Don Carter. The league's failure to get a TV contract caused it to fold following its first championship in 1962.
    On 27 January, 1962,[37] ABC Television aired its first Saturday afternoon broadcast of a PBA Tour event, the Empire State Open held at Redwood Lanes in Albany, New York,[38] beginning a partnership between ABC and the PBA that lasted through 1997. The Saturday afternoon bowling telecasts garnered very good ratings through the early 1980s, until the cable television-fueled explosion of sports viewing choices caused ratings to decline.
    In 1962, the first PBA Tournament of Champions was held; it became an annual event in 1965, and was sponsored by Firestone Tire from 1965 through 1993.
    In 1962, the American Wheelchair Bowling Association (AWBA) was founded in Louisville, Kentucky, by Richard F. Carlson.[39]
    Between 3 and 10 November, 1963, the Fifth FIQ World Bowling Championships in Mexico City, Mexico, were attended by 132 men and 45 women (first time) from 19 nations. It featured the debut of Team USA, which won seven of the eight gold medals.[40]
    On 25 November, 1963, Sports Illustrated published the article A Guy Named Smith Is Striking It Rich, revealing that PBA stars made more money than other professional sports stars, for "with more than $1 million in prizes to shoot for, the nation's top professional bowlers are rolling in money."[41] This was short-lived, however, for although the number of bowling alleys in the U.S. zoomed from 65,000 in 1957 to 160,000 in 1962, the U.S. bowling industry boom hit a brick wall in 1963. This was compensated, however, by a new boom in Europe and Japan, making 10-pin bowling an international sport.[42]
    In 1964, "Mr. Bowling" Don Carter became the first athlete to sign a $1 million endorsement contract: a multi-year deal with Ebonite International.
    In 1964, Marion Ladewig, a 9-time winner of the Bowling Writers Association of America's Female Bowler of the Year Award, became the first Superior Performance inductee into the WIBC Hall of Fame.
    In 1965, the AMF Bowling World Cup was established by the FIQ.
    On 27 January, 1967, the Japan Professional Bowling Association (JPBA) was founded in Tokyo, Japan.
    In 1971, the U.S. Open was founded by the PBA. From 1942 to 1970, this event was known as the BPAA All-Star.
    In 1978, National Negro Bowling Association pioneer J. Elmer Reed (1903–83) became the first African-American to be inducted into the ABC Hall of Fame.[43]
    On 16 December, 1979, Willie Willis won the Brunswick National Resident Pro Tournament in Charlotte, North Carolina, becoming the first African-American bowling champion in the PBA in a non-touring event. In 1980, he became the first African-American in the Firestone Tournament of Champions, placing 13th.[44]
    On 27 February, 1982, Earl Anthony won the Toledo Trust PBA National Championship, becoming the first bowler to reach $1 million in career earnings.
    In 1982, the Young American Bowling Alliance was formed from a merger of the American Junior Bowling Congress, the Youth Bowling Association, and the collegiate divisions of the ABC and WIBC.[45]
    In 1982, the 1982 Commonwealth Games in Brisbane, Australia, added women's bowls to the events.
    On 1 July, 1982, former PBA pro Glenn Allison rolled the first 900 series (three consecutive 300 games in a three-game set) to ever be submitted to the ABC for award consideration. The ABC, however, refused to certify the score, citing non-complying lane conditions.[46]
    On 22 November, 1986, George Branham III (born 1962) became the first African-American to win a PBA national touring event: the Brunswick Memorial World Open in Chicago, Illinois.
    On 18 September, 1988, the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, featured ten-pin bowling as a demonstration sport.
    On 2 August, 1991, in Havana, Cuba, tenpin bowling became an international medal-level sport for the first time at the 1991 Pan American Games, and continues to this day.
    In the 1992-1993 season, the ABC introduced resin bowling balls, causing perfect 300 scores to increase by 20%.[47]
    In 1995, the first Best Bowler ESPY Award was presented.
    In 1995, the National Bowling Stadium opened in Reno, Nevada, becoming known as the Taj Mahal of Tenpins.
    On 2 February, 1997, Jeremy Sonnenfeld (born 1975) bowled the first officially sanctioned 900 series of three straight perfect 300 games at Sun Valley Lanes in Lincoln, Nebraska, becoming known as "Mr. 900".[48]
    In 1998, the World Tenpin Masters 10-pin bowling tournament was established.
    In 2000, the Weber Cup, named after Dick Weber, was established as 10-pin bowling's equivalent to golf's Ryder Cup, with Team USA playing Team Europe in a 3-day match.
    In the 21st century[edit]
    On 31 March 2004 Missy Bellinder (1981-) (later Parkin) became the first woman member of the PBA.[49]
    In 2004 the Brunswick Euro Challenge was founded for amateur and pro 10-pin bowling players from Europe, Asia, and the U.S.[50]
    On 24 January 2010 Kelly Kulick (1977-) became the first woman to win the PBA Tournament of Champions and the first woman to win a PBA national tour event.
    In November 2012 after league bowling dropped from 80% to 20% of their business, AMF Bowling Centers of Richmond, Virginia filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy for the second time (first in 2001), merging in 2013 with upscale New York-based bowling center operator Bowlmor (which didn't support league bowling) in an attempt to turn league bowling around, growing from 276 centers in 2013 to 315 in 2015.
    In 2013 the PBA League was founded, composed of eight permanent 5-person teams, with an annual draft.[51]
    In 2015, the Professional Women's Bowling Association (PWBA) was revived after a 12-year hiatus.[52]
    Variations[edit]
    Bowling games can be distinguished into two general classes:
    Pin bowling[edit]

    Play media

    Video: A man bowling in Japan
    Five main variations are found in North America, with ten-pin being the most common but others being practiced in the eastern U.S. and in parts of Canada:[53]
    Ten-pin bowling: largest and heaviest pins, and bowled with a large ball with three finger holes, and the most popular type in North America
    Nine-pin bowling: pins usually attached to strings at the tops, uses a ball without finger holes.
    Candlepin bowling: tallest pins (40 cm), thin with matching ends, bowled with the smallest and lightest (at 1.1 kilograms (2.4 lb)) handheld ball of any bowling sport, and the only form with no fallen pins removed during a frame.
    Duckpin bowling: short, squat, and bowled with a handheld ball.
    Five-pin bowling: tall, between duckpins and candlepins in diameter with a rubber girdle, bowled with a handheld ball, mostly found in Canada.
    Target bowling[edit]


    A bowls tournament in Berrigan, New South Wales, Australia
    Another form of bowling is usually played outdoors on a lawn. At outdoor bowling, the players throw a ball, which is sometimes eccentrically weighted, in an attempt to put it closest to a designated point or slot in the bowling arena.
    Accessibility[edit]
    Technological innovation has made bowling accessible to members of the disabled community.
    The IKAN Bowler, a device designed by a quadriplegic engineer named Bill Miller, attaches to a wheelchair and allows the user to control the speed, direction, and timing of the ten-pin bowling ball's release. The name comes from the Greek work "ikano", which means "enable".[54]
    For Bowls the sport has introduced a number of innovations to enable people with a disability to participate at all levels of the sport, from social through to Olympic Standards:
    The use of bowling arms and lifters enables bowlers to deliver a bowl minimising the amount of movement required
    Wheelchair and green manufacturers have produced modified wheel tyres and ramps to enable wheelchair athletes to access bowls greens.
    Modified conditions of play as outlined in Disability classification in lawn bowls
    In popular culture[edit]
    With notable individuals[edit]
    U.S. Presidents[edit]


    Richard Nixon bowling in what was then called the Old Executive Office Building.
    In 1948, two bowling lanes were installed in the ground floor of the West Wing of the U.S. Presidential residence, the White House, as a birthday gift for then-President Harry S. Truman.[55] The lanes were moved to the Old Executive Office Building (now the Eisenhower Executive Office Building) in 1955, for the benefit of White House employees;[56] its old location became a mimeograph room, and, much later, the White House Situation Room.[55] On 9 July 2014, the General Services Administration published, then quickly withdrew, a solicitation for bids to replace the Truman bowling lanes, which were deemed "irreparable" for not having had "any professional, industry standard maintenance, modifications, repairs or attention" for fifteen years.[56][57]
    In 1969, friends of then-President Richard M. Nixon, who was said to be an avid bowler, had a one-lane alley built in an underground space below the building's North Portico.[55] The one-lane bowling alley underwent major renovations in 1994, and again in 2019.[58]
    Paintings[edit]
    A painting which dates from around 1810, and has been on display at the International Bowling Hall of Fame and Museum in St. Louis, Missouri (before its relocation on 26 January 2010, to the International Bowling Campus in Arlington, Texas), shows British bowlers playing the sport outdoors in the earliest known pictorial depiction of "ten-pin bowling" of any type, with a triangular formation of ten pins, chronologically before it appeared in the United States. A photograph of this painting appeared in the pages of the US-based "Bowler's Journal" magazine in 1988.[15]
    On 28 January 1950 the painting Bowling Strike by George Hughes (1907-1989)[59] appeared on the cover of the Saturday Evening Post.[60]
    In 1982 American expressionist painter LeRoy Neiman produced a famous painting of PBA star Earl Anthony's million dollar strike.[61]

    See also[edit]
    Open bowling
    Ten-pin bowling
    Bowling ball
    Glossary of bowling
    Automatic scorer
    World Bowling, the world governing body of bowling
    Frames per stop
    New Zealand Indoor Bowls
    Pinsetter
    Skittles, the sport from which alley-based bowling originated
    Bowls, lawn bowling
    Irish road bowling, along country roads in Ireland, but without a target
    Bowling Alone, a 2000 book by Robert D. Putnam that argues the decline in league bowling indicates a decline in social participation by Americans
    References[edit]
    Notes
    ^ Crystal-Mark (2010). Laws of the Sport of Bowls. World Bowls Ltd. p. 9.
    ^ "Niagara Falls Bowling Association". Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^
    Jump up to:
    a b "Bowling History - Origin of Bowling". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ Luna, Richard (2 June 1984). "Bruce Pluckhahn says there's a little bit of bowling..." United Press International. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Statement by Bowling Museum curator Bruce Pluckhahn.
    ^ Kaplan, Jim (7 April 1986). "Here's a Memory Lane for Bowling Fanatics Who Have Some Spare Time". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019.
    ^
    Jump up to:
    a b Pretsell, James M. (1908). The Game of Bowls Past and Present. Oliver & Boyd. p. 1.
    ^ Pretsell 1908, p. 2.
    ^ Administrator. "A little Bowling History". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^
    Jump up to:
    a b c d e f g h i "bowling - game". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ Linney, E.J. (1933). A History of the Game of Bowls. Edingburgh Press. p. 22.
    ^ "Bowling Museum & Hall of Fame > Visit > History of Bowling". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "History of Bowls". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "The Spanish Armada". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "Bowling Museum & Hall of Fame > Visit > Online Exhibits". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^
    Jump up to:
    a b Pluckhahn, Bruce; "Bowling Games People Play". Bowler's Journal magazine, December 1988 issue, pg. 121.
    ^ "First recorded ten-pin bowling match played…". Old Farmer's Almanac. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "Roseland Cottage — Historic New England". Historicnewengland.org. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
    ^ "History". Retrieved 24 January 2016.[permanent dead link]
    ^ "Sports in America from Colonial Times to the Twenty-First Century". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "Bowling Catalog E". Gutenberg.org. Narragansett Machine Company. 1895. Archived from the original on 1 July 2018. Project Gutenberg release date: June 16, 2018.
    ^ "A Jimmy Smith Bibliography". Dr. Jake's Bowling History Blog. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "BOWL.com - Floretta McCutcheon". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "Floretta McCutcheon biography". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^
    Jump up to:
    a b "Sports in America from Colonial Times to the Twenty-First Century". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "History of Bowling". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ Carrubba, Rich (June 2012). "Bowling Ball Evolution". BowlingBall.com (Bowlversity educational section). Archived from the original on 17 September 2018.
    ^ "About Us". Columbia300.com. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
    ^ "International Bowling Board". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ Munro, J.P. (1951). Bowls Encyclopedia. Melbourne Australia: Wilke & Co. p. 167.
    ^ "About The Petersen Classic". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "Bowling Media > About Us > IBMA History". Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^
    Jump up to:
    a b "National Negro Bowling Association - Ohio History Central". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "NWBW History - Bowling Media". Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ Rigali, James. H.; Walter, John C. (July 2005). "Afro-Americans in New York Life and History: The integration of the American Bowling Congress: the Buffalo experience". Afro-American Historical Association of the Niagara Frontier. Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 31 March 2006.
    ^ Bowl-A-Roll Lanes. "Bowl A Roll Lanes: Steve Nagy's 300 Game on Championship Bowling". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ Championship Bowling - Steve Nagy 300 (1954). 29 June 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2016 – via YouTube.
    ^ "Fourth Empire State PBA Open - Archived Standings". Professional Bowlers Association. Archived from the original on 28 September 2015.
    ^ Vint, Bill (27 June 2012). "PBA Spare Shots: Historic Redwood Lanes May Soon Close; "Million Dollar Shot" Artist LeRoy Neiman Dies". Professional Bowlers Association. Archived from the original on 16 April 2019.
    ^ "History of the AWBA - AWBA.ORG - Promoting Abilities, not Disability". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "PEAC Course Wiki / Team USA". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ Robert Boyle. "A GUY NAMED SMITH IS STRIKING IT RICH". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "Riding the Crest of Bowling's Boom". Bowlers Journal International. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "Encyclopedia of Cleveland History: REED, J. ELMER". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "A PIONEER IN BOWLING : Branham Finds Fame--and Fortune--to Be Right Down His Alley". latimes. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "Young American Bowling Alliance". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ USBC concludes re-evaluation of Glenn Allison 900 series Bigham, Terry on 22 November 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2014
    ^ "Now You Know Big Book of Sports". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ KEN HAMBLETON / Lincoln Journal Star. "Q&A with Jeremy Sonnenfeld". JournalStar.com. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "About Me". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "Brunswick names Dream-Bowl Palace host of Brunswick Euro Challenge through 2018 - Brunswick". Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "The League - PBA.com". Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "Women's pro tour to re-launch with USBC, BPAA commitment". United States Bowling Congress. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
    ^ Hawkins, Mike (bowling columnist) (18 September 2018). "The sport of bowling — more than 10 pins and two rolls". The Daily Advance. Archived from the original on 8 May 2019.
    ^ "Ability Magazine: IKAN Bowler". Retrieved 6 April 2012.
    ^
    Jump up to:
    a b c "White House Bowling Alley". The White House Museum. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
    ^
    Jump up to:
    a b Mahaskey, M. Scott (12 May 2014). "Photos: Inside the Truman Bowling Alley". Politico. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017.
    ^ Miller, Zeke J. (9 July 2014). "The White House Is Renovating Its Bowling Alley". TIME. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014.
    ^ Jerkovich, Katie (1 May 2019). "Melania Unveils Stunning Newly-Renovated WH Bowling Alley". The Daily Caller. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019.
    ^ "The Art of Licensing". Curtis Publishing. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ The Saturday Evening Post Society. "George Hughes - The Saturday Evening Post". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    ^ "Leroy Neiman Print - Million Dollar Strike". Rogallery.com. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    Further reading
    Grasso, John & Hartmen, Eric R.(2014) Historical Dictionary of Bowling
    The Historyscoper
    External links[edit]

    Look up bowling in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

    Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bowling.
    Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bowling" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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